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  CHAPTER ONE Ideological Background And Theoretical Framework Of India’s Foreign Policy During Cold War Era.   Chapter- 1 “Foreign policy is the key element in the process by which a state translates its broadly conceived goals and interests into concrete cources of action to attain these interests”.  (Padelford and Lincoln) Foreign Policy: An Introduction  Nations pursue their policies within the context of an existing world environment. It is of cause obvious that  policies designed to serve a pattern of interests in one period under one set of circumstances can be largely irrelevant in another period. (1) Foreign policy may be defined as the sum total of the  principles, aims and objectives which an independent country evolves in maintaining its relations with other countries of the world without any pressure what so  –   ever from any country  big or small, developing or under-developed, powerful or weak. Foreign policy is the mirror of political status of a country. (2) A country is often known in the world by the foreign policy it maintains. Foreign policy essentially refers to the interaction which a country has with the other countries, their governments and about major international  problems. The life of the country, its defence and security as well as its economics prosperity depend upon this policy, so the foreign policy of a country is very important. (3) Foreign policy and diplomacy have been described as wheels with which the process of international relations operates No state can live in isolation. Even before independence of states reached the present stage the states  and several types of relations among themselves. These included trade relations cultural relations and political relations. Foreign policy is formulated by every state so as to serve its national interests. The governments of states have to decide on certain others. Foreign policy has been defined by Modelski as the system of activities involved by communities for changing the behaviour of other states and for adjusting their own activities to the international environment. He was also of the opinion that the most important task of foreign policy must be to “allow light on the ways in which states attempt to change and succeed in changing the behaviour of other states. Hugh Gibson has defined foreign policy as “a well rounded, comprehensive plan based on knowledge and experience, for changing the business of government with the rest of the world. It is aimed at promoting and protecting the foreign  policy is an interaction between forces srcinating within them. A very good definition of foreign policy is given by Cecil. V. Crab, Jr. he says: Reduced to its most fundamental ingredients, foreign policy consists of two elements. National objectives to be achieved and means for achieving them. The interaction between national goals and the resources for attaining them is the perennial subject of statecraft. In its ingredients the foreign policy of all nations, great or small, is the same. (4) Foreign policy includes  (a) , the policy makers (b) , interests and objectives (c)  principles of foreign policy and means of foreign policy. It is a thought-out course of action  for achieving objectives in foreign relations as dictated by the ideology of national interest. Foreign policy is the interaction  between ends and means. Foreign policy making is a dynamic process.  Normally, change of government does not change the fundaments of foreign policy of a state, though a revolutionary change in political set-up may result in drastic changes. It remains normally unchanged because foreign  policy of a state is determined by a number of factors that do change, but their impact in shaping a country is “compounded out of many factors and forces”. All of them interact and determine the foreign policy. According to Paddleford and Lincoln: “Fundamentally, foreign policy has its roots in the unique historical backgrounds, political institutions, traditions economic needs, power factors, aspirations, peculiar geographical circumstances, and basic set of values held by a nation. (5) According to J. Bandopadhyaya basic determinants of foreign policy include geography, economic development  political traditions domestic milieu, international milieu, military strength and national character. Brief mention will be made of the factors that generally determine foreign policies. Geography ,  the geographical situation is a basic determinant. The size of the state large enough to support a  population, a climate that is neither excessively cold nor very hot, a topography offering boundaries with natural barriers such as mountains, rivers and seas and a compact territory enable a country to make and implement independent foreign  policy. Geography and terrain were very important assets,
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