1.1 Principles of Management

1.1 Principles of Management
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  1.1 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENTQues 1: Discuss between dele!ti n !nd decent#!li$!ti n. Cite s %e & t'e i%( #t!nt bst!cles t e&&ecti)e dele!ti n.Ans1. Dele!ti n: A concept related to authority is delegation. Delegation is the downwards transfer of power from an administrator to a subordinate. It is the entrusting part of work or control to others. It is a permission to a subordinate administrator to create choice, to requisition sources, and to execute other projects in a specified way. Delegation is how an administrator efficiently designates a work to be achieved. Delegation is a threestep procedure such as providing liability, providing power and developing liability. !hese actions can differ between companies, but the procedure must be done efficiently and concretely. Delegation can be finished based on assumed working agreements that are already recogni ed by before delegation connections. Delegation methods are modified according to the characteristics of the execute itself and by a person who will be finishing the work. Delegation is an important expertise for supervisors to use to create the best of their own time and sources. It is the recommended strategy to handling and training people who have great expertise and great will to finish the particular process at hand. I%( #t!nce & dele!ti n Delegation is the characteristics of management and the substance of a sound company. #nly one personal cannot handle and manage everything due to physical and mental limitations. !he projects include in management of an company are too large and one particular person cannot release them singlehandedly. !herefore, he must split his work and discuss his obligations with others. #nce a man$s job develops beyond his personal potential his achievements lie in his capability to increase himself through other people..Delegation of authority provides the following advantages% ã It enables the managers to distribute their work load to others. &y reducing the workload for routine matters, they can concentrate on more important policy matters.  'Delegation conveniences fast conclusions since the power to make decisions is placed near the point of action. (mployees need not approach the boss each and every time need for a decision arises.'Delegation helps to improve the job satisfaction, motivation and morale of subordinates. It helps to satisfy their needs for recognition, responsibility and freedom.'&y clearly interpreting the authority and responsibility of employees, a manager can keep balanced interactions with them. Delegation increases interaction and understanding among managers and subordinates.'Delegation allows a manager to obtain the speciali ed information and skills of subordinates.'Delegation allows to guarantee continuity in business because managers at lower levels are enabled to receive beneficial experience in decision making. !hey get an opportunity to develop their abilities and can fill higher positions in case of need. Obst!cles & dele!ti ns Delegation is a twosided relationship. It is a demanding function. It demands sacrifices from both the delegator and delegate. !he superior must be willing to slice out a portion of his authority and the subordinate must be willing to shoulder additional responsibilities. )uccessful delegation is a product of psychological willingness of both the parties to accept responsibilities and fulfil the obligation in a sincere way. !he concept of delegation thus is very easy to understand but difficult to operationali e or translate into concrete action. #bstacles than can make delegation within an organi ation difficult or even impossible can be classified into * general categories%+.#bstacles related to the )upervisor.#bstacles related to )ubordinates*.#bstacles related to #rgani ations  Su(e#i #*#el!ted (# ble%s: ã )ome managers are reluctant to delegate because of their belief that they can always take better decisions and show good results than their subordinates. -anagers suffering from an inflated sense of their own often end up doing the subordinate$s work to the criminal neglect of their own activities. ã -anagers are reluctant to delegate because delegation means delusion of authority and power. !he importance of the superior is reduced to the extent of the authority is transferred to the subordinate. !he subordinate may ultimately improve his skills through consistent delegation and may turn out to be potential competitor for the superior$s job. ã )ometimes managers may like to delegate but may not be able to do it effectively because of their inability to identify and communicate the essential features of his plans, policies etc. ã Delegation is not assuring bet. !here is no guarantee that delegation would turn out to be fruitful. )o there is no substance in the argument that delegation must be practiced strictly to improve results. If things go wrong, the superior is answerable and has to face the music from many quarters. Sub #din!te*#el!ted &!ct #s: ã If subordinate finds it easier to depend upon the superior for taking decisions or solving problems he may avoid accepting authority even through the superior may be prepared to delegate it. ã ommitting mistakes is an essential part of learning. If the subordinate is deprived of that and he fears that he will be in for uncharitable criticism even for a small genuine mistake, he will shrink from accepting a job. ã A subordinate who believes that he does not possess the requisite information and necessary resources required for turning out a  creditable performance may be generally unwilling to accept difficult assignments. ã )ubordinate who lack selfconfidence depend on the superior for continuous coaching and guidance. !hey feel secure and comfortable in the relationships of dependence with their superior$s. ã A subordinate may hesitate accepting more work delegated to him by the superior if he does not get adequate incentives in the form of recognition and credit and other monetary rewards. Accepting additional duties usually involves mental effort and emotional pressures. O#!ni$!ti n*#el!ted &!ct #s: )ometimes superiors want to delegate authority and subordinate like to accept delegation. &ut delegation may be hampered due to weakness in the organi ation structure. )ome these weakness are as follows% ã Inadequate planning, ã )plintered authority, ã /ack of unity of command, ã Absence of effective control techniques, ã 0onavailability of competent managers, and ã (nvironment of internal distrust.In any organisation, the degree of delegation depends upon several factors, e.g. si e of the organi ation, decentrali ed performance, management philosophy, workload of managers, etc. Decent#!li$!ti n Decentrali ation is the process of dispersing decisionmaking governance closer to the people or citi en. It includes the dispersal of administration or governance in sectors or areas like engineering, management science, political science, political economy, sociology and economics. Decentrali ation is also possible in
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