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The study intends to investigate the interplay between work-life balance and organizational commitment amongst working post-graduate students. The survey research design was used, multistage sampling technique was adopted using the correlation and
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  1.Introduction competitive advantage and improved organizational performance. Also, a reduction in work-interference with Arising from high unemployment rate and unfavorable family (WIF) and family-interference with work (FIW) economic conditions, Nigeria has been known as a place can help achieve organizational commitment. WIF on where decent work practices may have been neglected by the one hand, presupposes that when work interferes with organizations and precarious work conditions have been the family sphere; it can take away employees’ time, embraced at the detriment of the people (Nkporbu, physical, and emotional resources (Xu, 2008). When this Asuquo & Douglas, 2016). The main focus of interference surpasses employees’ anticipations and organizations in the country, seems to be the range of tolerance, it may decrease their commitment. maximization of profits without caring about the welfare On the other hand, FIW means that when family role of the employees (Yange, Oyeshola & Aduloju, 2016). interferes with the work domain, it may reduce Organizations should note that, “employees who have employees’ commitment at the place of work. positive perceptions and experiences in their workplaces will have an increased desire, willingness and ability to Organizational commitment as a concept has been go the extra mile, will speak more positively of the defined by earlier theorists such as Mowday, Steers and company and will be more than willing to stay and help Porter (1979) as employees’ acceptance of out when times get tough” (Fapohunda, 2013, p. 87). organizational values, willingness to exert effort, and Any organization that desires progress, competiveness desire to maintain membership in the organization. Also, and profit must always find ways by which it can obtain Meyer and Allen (1991) viewed organizational the commitment of its workers. One of the very best ways commitment from three dimensions namely, affective of obtaining this individual outcome of commitment is commitment, continuance commitment and normative by institutionalizing human resource practices that will commitment. They noted that, affective commitment help employees achieve a work-life balance. Work-life refers to employee’s emotional attachment to; balance and organizational commitment practices can be identification with; and involvement in the organization. employed to achieve the organizational outcomes of While continuance commitment refers to an awareness Work-life Balance and Organisational Commitment: Perceptions of Working Postgraduate Students Rasheed Olawale,   AZEEZ   V , (r.azeez2002@gmail.com) Tinuke M. FAPOHUNDA Foluso Ilesnmi, JAYEOBA V (Jay_ife@yahoo.com)Department of Industrial Relations and Personnel ManagementManagement Sciences Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria. Abstract The study intends to investigate the interplay between work-life balance and organizational commitment amongst working  post-graduate students. The survey research design was used, multistage sampling technique was adopted using the correlation and regression approaches. The samples were drawn from working postgraduate students in Lagos State University, Lagos.Results indicate a positive but not statistically significant relationship between work-life balance and organizational commitment. A positive relationship was found between Work-Interference with Family (WIF) and organizational commitment; however it was not statistically significant. Finally, a positive relationship was found between  family-interference with work (FIW) and organizational commitment, but not statistically significant. The study recommended that government and management of organizations that have employees’ that are students should ensure that they help them achieve work-life balance, to aid organizational commitment. Keywords: work-life balance, work-interference with family, family interference with work, organizational commitment, post-graduate students  BVIMSR’s Journal of Management Research Vol. 9 Issue - 2 : October : 2017  178  of the costs associated with leaving the organization, and review which contains conceptual clarifications, normative commitment reflects a feeling of obligation to theoretical framework and empirical review. Also, in the continue employment with the organization. paper is research methodology section, results and discussion and conclusion.From the definitions above, it is implied that, organizational commitment is associated with the persistent affiliation of employees with an organization. 2.Research Problem Statement Such affiliation of employees is critical for survival in The Nigerian working environment has been observed to today’s dynamic business environment, where they are be volatile, degrading, precarious and unfriendly expected to adjust to new working conditions, acquire (Mortimore & Adams, 1999). Also, in the Nigerian new knowledge, learn new technologies, and provide working environment, work-life imbalances have high quality services to internal and external become common occurrence and have numerous organizational constituents (Glinka, Enke, Kasper-consequences on organizations such as low productivity Brauer & Sarstedt, 2017). This shows that, commitment and growth trajectory (Igbinomwanhia et al., 2012). of individuals who are working, schooling and have These work-life imbalances can lead to the non-other obligations to fulfill outside the place of work commitment of employees because a non-alignment should not be taken with levity. In line with these exist between their roles at work and roles at home. submissions, the concept of organizational commitment Commitment of employees is important for achieving is crucial to be investigated amongst working organizational efficiency in Nigeria’s dynamic work postgraduate students especially within a university environment (Azeez, Jayeoba & Adeoye, 2016). setting such as the Lagos State University (LASU). Nigerian worker faces a huge task of managing domestic Working postgraduate students, are committed to risks in the absence of adequate employee benefit different roles (work, family and schooling) that may schemes and insurance coverage. According to Boyi conflict with one another, yet they must not be found (2015), organizations in this type of environment, who wanting in each roles. In other not to be found wanting in seek optimum performance from employees must not toy these roles, the need arises for organizations to institute with their employees’ work-life balance. This is because work-life balance practices. Work-life balance has been employees’ have various roles to play; at-work, at-school noted to mean an employee’s control over his/her and at-home and they must effectively manage these responsibilities between work, family, friends and self roles, in other not to lead to employee burnout. Reviewed (Thulasimani, Duraisamy & Rathinasabapathi, 2010). previous studies in Nigeria on the subject matter, such as Additionally, work-life balance helps in the alignment of Akintayo (2010) and Babolola, Oladipo and Chovwen, work roles and family roles (Bashir & Ramay, 2008), (2015), using different samples such as industrial which will bring about organizational efficiency and workers and working parents differs on their findings. performance (Adame-Sánchez, González-Cruz & For instance, the former found a significant relationship Martínez-Fuentes, 2016; Berkery, Morley, Tiernan, among the variables using industrial workers while the Purtill & Parry, 2017). Some examples of work-life latter found a contradictory relationship using working balance practices according to Igbinomwanhia, Iyayi parents. It is against this backdrop that; this study intends and Iyayi (2012) include: teleworking, compressed work to correct the glaring lacuna and add to the growing body hours, child care, job sharing and self-rostering. of literature on work-life balance by investigating the The current study therefore, investigates work-life interplay between work-life balance and organizational balance as an antecedent of organizational commitment commitment amongst working post-graduate students in amongst working postgraduate students. This study aims Lagos State University. Also, a paucity of literature on to contribute to the body of knowledge in the areas of work-life balance and organizational commitment in the work-life balance and organizational commitment. Nigerian context is also a justification for this current study. The research paper consists of research problem which consists of research objectives and hypotheses, literature  BVIMSR’s Journal of Management Research Work-life Balance and Organisational Commitment: Perceptions of Working Postgraduate StudentsVol. 9 Issue - 2 : October : 2017  179   BVIMSR’s Journal of Management Research Work-life Balance and Organisational Commitment: Perceptions of Working Postgraduate StudentsVol. 9 Issue - 2 : October : 2017  180 2.1Research Objectives commitment as a calming force that connects individuals to their organizations. Today's work environment 1.To investigate the relationship between requires a specific sort of initiative from the leadership work-life balance and organizational and managers with a view to retaining their employees. commitment.Fundamentally, it is stated that even as committed 2.To examine the relationship between Work-employees have some freedom or autonomy on how they Interference with Family (WIF) and accomplish their day-to-day tasks, a clear direction from organizational commitment.management is still needed (Azeez et al., 2016).3.To examine the relationship between Family-Interference with Work (FIW) and 3.1.2.Work-Life Balance organizational commitment.Nigeria as a modernizing society, has its workforce gradually changing from a mechanical society to a 2.2Hypotheses modern nation that incorporates a multiplicity of fields H1:There is no significant relationship between and working environment choices and is characterized by work-life balance and organizational occupations that require mental as opposed to physical commitment.effort. Another change to the Nigerian workforce includes; workforce diversity, specifically the multi-H2:There is no significant relationship between generational makeup of the population. Many things have Work-Interference with Family (WIF) and caused this change within the workforce and instigated organizational commitmentthe introduction of the work-life balance issue to become H3:There is no significant relationship between a shifting and ongoing task for human resource Family-Interference with Work (FIW) and professionals and organizations (Kossek, Noe, & organizational commitmentDeMarr, 1999). Kalliath and Brough (2008) in their review-study of the work-life balance construct, acknowledged the six most commonly used definitions 3.Literature Review within the literature to be (i) work-life balance reflects an This section makes conceptual clarifications and review individual’s orientation across different roles, (ii) the existing theories on the relationship between work-life extent to which an individual is engaged in – and equally balance and organizational commitment. Also, it reviews satisfied with – his or her work role and family role, (iii) existing works on the interplay between the investigated achieving satisfying experience in all life domains and to variables.do so requires personal resources such as energy, time and 3.1.Conceptual Clarificationscommitment to be well distributed across domains, (iv) the extent to which an individual’s life roles priorities at a 3.1.1.Organizational Commitmentgiven point in time, (v) low levels of inter-role conflict Irrespective of the growing works on organizational and high levels of inter-role facilitation contribute to commitment, little movement has been made towards the higher levels of perceived work-family balance. (vi) establishment of a comprehensively recognized meaning work-life balance is about people having a measure of of the idea. For instance, Azeez (2015) affirmed that, control over when, where and how they work. Also, to the organizational commitment is the feeling of devotion that six regularly used definitions, Byrne (2005) defined employees have towards the organization they work for, work-life balance as a situation whereby, people have a which largely depends on the extent to which they believe degree of control over when, where, and how they work. in the values, norms, orientations and aims of the It is achieved when an individual’s right to a fulfilled life organization and feel personally involved in the mission inside and outside paid work is accepted and respected as of making the organization prosperous. Congruently, Ng the norm to the mutual benefit of the individual, business and Feldman (2008) referred to organizational and society. In line with this definition, Byrne (2005) also   BVIMSR’s Journal of Management Research Vol. 9 Issue - 2 : October : 2017 Work-life Balance and Organisational Commitment: Perceptions of Working Postgraduate Students 181indicated what work-life balance looks like in the work work-family conflict theory in which family and work place, they include options such as flexi-time, time off, contest for attention, time, and commitment. Work-compressed working hours, shift swapping, annualized family conflict theory is depicted as a type of combined hours, job-sharing, term-time working, working from role conflict in which the role stresses from the work and home, teleworking, breaks from work, and flexible family realms are commonly irreconcilable in some benefits. regard (Carlson, Kacmar &Williams, 2000). According to Carlson et al. (2000), they opined that work-family Dimensions of work-life balance are work-interference conflict theory can be explained with six components with family (WIF) which means that, work interferes and they include: Time-Based Work Interface with with the family domain of employees. This interference Family (WIF), Time-Based Family Interface with Work might have an adverse effect on their commitment, (FIW), Strain-Based WIF, Strain-Based FIW, satisfaction and physical and emotional stability. While, Behaviour-Based WIF and Behaviour- Based FIW. family-interference with work (FIW) on the other hand, Work-to-family conflict emerges when an employee assumes that that family role interferes with employees’ experiences at work, extensive, irregular, or unbendable role at work which can reduce employees’ commitment work hours; work over-burden and different types of on the one hand and job satisfaction on the other hand.employment stress; interpersonal clash at work; extensive travelling and unsupportive managers or 3.2.Theoretical Framework organizations’ obstructions to family life (Favero & Heath, 2012). As indicated by Reisine, Freilich, Ortiz, It is apt to say, no specific theory or perspective is Pendrys, Shafer and Taxel (2012), work-family conflict universally acceptable to understand the relationship has relentlessly expanded among the workforce because between work-life balance and organizational of the aforementioned issues.commitment (Igbinomwanhia et al., 2012; Pitt-Catsouphes, Kossek & Sweet, 2006). Morris and Madsen (2007) observed that, the academic body of 3.2.3.Role Stress Theory knowledge regarding work-family or work-life balance Role stress theory examines both features of an scholarship depends on multiplicity of theoretical employee’s life as it transmits to work-family conflict frameworks. To this end, some theories of work-life patterns. Segal (1986) noted that the idea of conflict is balance are reviewed to serve as theoretical established on the notion that the workplace and the underpinning for this study.family are “greedy” establishments, demanding devotion and time from employees. Nevertheless, 3.2.1.Spill-Over Theory Rantanen, Kinnunen, Mauno, and Tillemann (2011) observed that, the work-life examination has been The Spillover theory holds that inputs in one role steered by the role stress theory. They noted further that, interrupts the inputs in the other role (Sirgy, Efraty, the role stress theory assumes that work-life balance is Siegel & Lee, 2001). The experiences caused by the significant for an individual’s psychological well-being, spillover can manifest themselves into positive or and that high self-esteem, fulfilment at work, and overall negative spillover (Morris & Madsen, 2007). Example of sense of harmony in life can be viewed as signs of an positive spillover, is an employee in a good mood at effective balance between work and life roles (Rantanen home. This will definitely be transferred to the place of et al., 2011).work and the negative spill over is a bad mood-if transferred to the place of work can be terrible. Since there is no one best way to view the relationship between work-life balance and organizational commitment, this paper adopts the three theories to form 3.2.2.Work-Family Conflict Theory the backdrop to this study. The theories explain work-life Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) changed the direction in balance and organizational commitment relationship which work-life balance was to be seen by introducing better in a dynamic context such as Nigeria, where   BVIMSR’s Journal of Management Research Vol. 9 Issue - 2 : October : 2017 Work-life Balance and Organisational Commitment: Perceptions of Working Postgraduate Students 182employers do not care about their employees. This paper positively related to organizational commitment. In the considers these approaches as the suitable theoretical correlational study of Ch, Kundi, Qureshi and Akhtar basis to satisfactorily examine the interplay between (2014), they observed that a significant relationship work-life balance and organizational commitment exists between work-life balance and organizational amongst working post-graduate students at Lagos State commitment. Within the Nigerian context, Akintayo University.(2010) found a significant relationship between work-family role conflict and organizational commitment For the purpose of this study, the role stress theory will amongst industrial workers in Nigeria using the linear serve as the theoretical foundation to this study. This is regression. Also, Babolola, Oladipo and Chovwen, because the role stress theory accepts that work-life (2015), in their study on the influence of organizational balance is important for an individual’s psychological factors and work-family conflict on organizational well-being, high self-esteem, fulfilment at work, and commitment among working parents, observed that overall sense of harmony in life; this will ultimately have employees with high work-family conflict are more an effect on employees’ commitment.committed to their jobs. This result is inconsistent with the work of Good, Sisler and Gentry (1988) because, an 3.3.Relationship between Work-Life Balance employee that exhibits a high work-role and life-role and Organizational Commitment conflict ought to be less committed to their organization because a negative spill-over effect exists.Under this section, existing studies were reviewed to support and refute the relationship between work-life Contrary to the findings above, Riaz and Hunjra (2015), balance and organizational commitment. In the United in their study titled, evidence of organizational States of America, Malone and Issa (2012), investigated commitment and work-life conflict, the results of their the relationship between work-life balance and study revealed a negative and significant impact of work-organizational commitment of women in the US life conflict on organizational commitment. It was also construction industry. They found that there were uncovered that facets of work-life conflict also have differences in their respondents’ commitment over negative and significant influence on organizational different time intervals, as well as in their satisfaction commitment. Also, Rehman and Waheed (2012)’s study with employer benefits based on whether or not they had on work-family conflict and organization commitment children under 21 living at home. In India, Azeem and amongst faculty members at Pakistani universities, Akhtar (2014) for instance, found a significant suggested a negative impact of work-family conflict on relationship between healthcare employees’ work-life organizational commitment.balance and their commitment. Based on the result of their regression analysis, they held that work-life balance 3.4.Relationship between Work-Interference contributes 37% variance to the health workers’ with family (WIF) and Organizational Commitment. satisfaction and organizational commitment. Similarly, Tayfun and Çatir (2014) in their study, found a positive The relationship between these variables has been relationship between work/life balance of nurses and understudied within the Nigerian context, most of the affective and normative commitment, was found no works on this relationship were written in the developed relationship between work-life balance and continuance countries, most especially, United States of America. commitment. Also, using the canonical analysis, Previous research studies who used United States of Benligiray and Sönmez (2012)’s result revealed that the America participants found that work interference with relationship between doctors and nurses’ organizational family (WIF) negatively relates to affective commitment commitment and work–family conflict is weak and (Good et al., 1988; Netemeyer, Boles & McMurrian, positive. More recently, Choo, Desa and Asaari (2016) 1996; Streich, Casper & Salvaggio, 2008) and positively employing the correlational and linear regression relates to continuance commitment (Casper, Martin, approach of the quantitative research design found that Buffardi & Erdwins, 2002). It is against this backdrop flexible working arrangement was significantly and that; this study sets out to fill the glaring lacuna.
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