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Acknowledgement 2

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 Acknowledgement Definition A shophouse is a vernacular architectural building types that is both natives and unique to urban Southeast Asia. This hybrid building form characterises the historical centres of most towns and cities in the region. Design and features Shophouses may nominally stretch as high as three floors in densely populated locations. Depicted here is a row of mid 20th century, three storey shophouses in China town. Singapore of traditional, Art Deco and International styles.
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   Acknowledgement  Definition A shophouse is a vernacular architectural building types that is both natives and unique to urbanSoutheast Asia. This hybrid building form characterises the historical centres of most towns andcities in the region.  Design and features Shophouses may nominally stretch as high as three floors in densely populated locations.Depicted here is a row of mid 20th century, three storey shophouses in China town. Singapore of traditional, Art Deco and International styles. Multi-functional Typically, shophouses consist of shops on the ground floor which open up to a public arcade or  five-foot way , and which have residential accommodation upstairs. The shophouses wouldabut each other to form rows with regular facade,fire walls and adherence to street alignment.As its name suggests, a shophouse often contains a shop with separate residential spaces. Moregenerally, space occupied by the former contains a semi-public function. While this usually is,and historically usually was, a shop, it could just as easily be a food and beverage outlet (e.g.coffeeshop or bar), a service provider (e.g. clinic or barber), an industrial activity (e.g. cottageindustry or auto workshop) or a community space (e.g. a school or clan association). Residentialspaces are meant to accommodate one or more families, or serve as a dormitory for singleworkers. Popular belief holds that shophouses were initially occupied by single families, withtheir private living areas in one space and the more public family business in another. However,it is possible that the two spaces were always usually used by unrelated persons or groups, whomay be tenants or resident owners. The position of the shop and residential space depends on thenumber of floors of the shophouse: A single storey shophouse tends to include residential space   behind the shop, while residential spaces in shophouses of two or more storeys are typicallylocated above the shop. Low rise A terraced layout allows a row of shophouses to extend as long as a city block permits, asexemplified by this long row of double storey shophouses in Geogtown, Penang.Shophouses are generally low rise buildings. They have a minimum of one floor, but shophouseswith two storeys are abundant, while three storey shophouses are typically present in more prosperous and densely built up central areas. However, shophouses of five or more storeys arenot unknown, and are more common among newer counterparts. Heights were constrained by building technology and levels of prosperity. Narrow fronts, deep rears Shophouses have narrow street frontages, but may extend backwards to great depths, in somecases extending all the way to the rear street. A number of reasons have been given for thenarrow widths of these buildings. One reason relates to taxes, i.e. the idea that buildings werehistorically taxed according to street frontage rather than total area, thereby creating an economicmotivation to build narrow and deeply. Another reason is building technology: the timber beamsthat carried the roof and floor loads of these structures were supported by masonry party walls.The extent of frontage was therefore affected by the structural span of the timber used. While all  shophouses appear, visually, to have similarly narrow widths, these are not uniform and minor variations are the rule, especially when comparing buildings built at different times, by differentowners and with different materials or technologies. Terraced building Shophouses are urban terraced buildings, i.e. standing right next to each other along a street, withno gap or space in between buildings (in similar vein as a terraced house). Frequently, a singlewall separates the shophouses on either side of it. Five-foot ways An example of a five-foot way along a row of shophouses in Selangor, Malaysia.The covered walkway along the road is within the shophouse property line but is for public use, providing pedestrians shade from sun and rain. This practice can be traced to antecedents inSouth China, but also to the Royal Ordinances by Phillip II of 1573. In early Manila two storey  houses were built in rows with arcades on the ground floor.A key development was the RafflelsOrdinances (1822) for Singapore which stipulated that “all houses constructed of brick or tileshave a common type of front each having an arcade of a certain depth, open to all sides as acontinuous and open passage on each side of the street”. This practice spread to other States inBritish Malaya and by-laws with requirements for “verandah-ways of...at least seven feetmeasuring from the boundary of the road .....and the footway within any verandah-way must beat least five feet in the clear.”The by-laws were an important element in the evolution of the shophouse building form. Theywere not easy to implement: builders naturally wanted to build on and use as much of their landas possible. Even to this day municipal authorities have to occasionally make sure that thearcades are kept free from shopkeepers blocking the path with their goods.In other parts of Southeast Asia, shophouses lack this distinctive and, if the by-laws are observed,useful feature that protects pedestrians from the sun and frequent torrential rain. Older shophouses in Bangkok, for example, may have a plain ledge without gutters jutting out over the pavement, while newer ones may do without this element altogether. Internal courtyards
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