Air Studio Journal Part A

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STUDIO AIR PART A2017, SEMESTER 1, MATTHEW DWYER TRINH PHAM 784173FIG.1: WALKING CITY BY ARCHIGRAMCONTENTS INTRODUCTION A. CONCEPTUALIZATION A.1 DESIGN FUTURING A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION A.3 COMPOSITION/GENERATION A.4 SUMMARY A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES A.6 APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHESFIG.2: EARTH STUDIO FINAL DESIGNFIG.3: DIGITAL DESIGN FABRICATION SLEEPING PODFIG.4: WATER STUDIO FINAL PROJECTFIG.5: AA VISITING SCHOOL SOCIAL ALGORITHM - NARRATED CITY4 CONCEPTUALISATIONHello! My name is Trinh Pham, currently in my final year of Bachelor degree at University of Melbourne. I was born in Bien Hoa, a small yet industrializing city in Southern Vietnam. Architecture was not my first choice when choosing major at university. However, I’ve always been fasinated about the surrounding built environments and questioning how elements are combined into one cohesive structure. I decided to experiment myself with architecture and I’ve never regretted that decision. Being pushed forward by curiosity, the more I explore, the more I realize how sophisticated yet beautiful the world we are living in. Taking this course with little software knowledge, I’ve been building up my skills in two years and feel fairly confident with AutoCad, Photoshop, Indesign and Rhino. However, I find my design sometimes restricted within the software knowledge I currently have. Therefore, I hope taking Air Studio would help me break that barrier and experiment more possibilities with computational design.CONCEPTUALISATION 5FIG.6: WALKING CITY BY ARCHIGRAMACONCEPTUALIZATIONFIG.3: ARCHIGRAM8 CONCEPTUALISATIONDESIGN FUTURING We are living in the era of dramatic technology development. However, along with improvement in welfare and living conditions, we’re also facing many future risks such as climate change, pollution, disasters, etc. as results of our anthropocentric behavior, in which we “treat planet simply as an infinite resource at our disposal”.1 Problematically, we’re taking such overconsumption for granted as the threat is not directly and immediately affecting our lives.Therefore, considering design futuring, the solution for future should not only “sustainable” but also adaptive to the ever-changing environment and it should accounts for long-term development. The following precedents propose sets of new design thinking for the future.1. Tony Fry, ‘Design futuring sustainability, ethics, and new practice’ (Berg Editorial Office: 2009), p1-16 (p.1)To alleviate the problem, current projects are aiming at sustainable solutions in term of materials and performance. However, many solutions proposed with the tag ‘ sustainable’ or ‘innovative in fact does not essentially solve any problems, but rather to make people feel as if they are doing the right thing.There is a “significant gap between needed actions and the availability of the means to create political, social, and economic changes that would enable humanity to be sustained”. 22. Anthony Dunne & Friona Raby, ‘Speculative everything design, fiction, and social dreaming’ (MIT Press: 2013), p1-9,33-45 (p.35)FIG.7: BLUE REVOLUTION - FLOATING CITY CONCEPTUALISATION 9CASE STUDY A.1MONTREAL BIOSPHÈRE by Buckminster Fuller“Challenges we face today are unfixable and that the only way to overcome them is by changing our values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviour”.1M ontreal Biosphere located in Parc Jean-Drapeau, Canada is an environmental museum completed in 1967 and designed by Buckminster Fuller, who is known as father of geodesic domes. He is also known for his design philosophy ‘more for less’ and considered to be one of the leading architect in sustainable design in the 1960-1970s. Sixty-two meters reaching into the sky, the Biosphere is one of the most specular geodesic dome that displays lightweight structure that has great spanning capacity without internal supports, creating large open plan. The dome FIG.4: GARDEN BYof BAY consists series of pentagons interspersed into hexagon grid and subdivided into equilateral triangles.1 These triangular steel tubes are then welded together in repetitious patterns, enhancing the complexity of the structure. With such construction methodology, the building used less materials compared to conventional architectural design but provide large and structural stable liveable space. 2 This opens up a new perspective for architectural approach at that time, particularly the idea of building dynamic forms from series of simple components and ‘sustainability’ that we are aiming at today and practising a sustainable design.Even though the concept of sustainability is a norm in today’s society, back in 1960s, it was not a big issue and not many people were concerned about it. However, Buckminster has been always thinking about ‘connecting architecture to ecology and to the environment’3 The idea that future is not an independent reality from humans’ existence 4 from Fry’s reading can be seen in how Buckminster based his design around the inter-influence between humans and their ever-changing surrounding environment. Instead of following the conventional design, he creates new form of architecture that question the natural resource usage behaviour at that time and suggest a way to change in future. The concept of generating structurally strong yet lightweight structure that uses less materials is one of the principles that have been continuously applied in today’s architecture and construction field. The influence of geodesic domes is undeniable as we can see many applied projects all around the world such as La Geode in Paris by Adrien Fainsilber and Gerard Chamyou or Spaceship Earth at Disney’s Epcot by Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc.1. David Langdon, ‘AD Classics: Montreal Biosphere / Buckminster Fuller’ (2014) (ArchDaily, accessed 9th August 2017) <> 2. Archeyes, ‘AD Classics: Montreal Biosphere / Buckminster Fuller’ (2016) (ArchDaily, accessed 9th August 2017) <> 3. Dario Goodwin, ‘Spotlight: Buckminster Fullerr’ (2017) (ArchDaily, accessed 9th August 2017) <http://> 4. Tony Fry, ‘Design futuring sustainability, ethics, and new practice’ (Berg Editorial Office: 2009), p1-16 (p.1) 5. Anthony Dunne & Friona Raby, ‘Speculative everything design, fiction, and social dreaming’ (MIT Press: 2013), p1-9,33-4510 CONCEPTUALISATIONFIG.8: MONTREAL BIOSPHERE CONCEPTUALISATION 11 FIG.1: MONTREAL BIOSPHERESCASE STUDY A.1GARDEN BY THE BAYby Wilkinson Eyre, Atelier One, Aterlier Ten With the rising concerns about climate changeand environmental issues, various proposals have been brought forward in attempt to improve the current conditions. However, many of which merely focus on dealing with the phenomenon without considering the roof of the problem which lies in “humans’ anthropocentric mode”1 that leads to excessive resource exploitation. Development of mass production and technology slowly isolated human from their surrounding context and future is sacrificed in order to sustain the present. 2 Taking a different approach, Garden by the Bay is the project that not only focuses on creating a sustainable structure, but an architectural space that allows people to interact with the environment, subsequently re-establishing their connection with the surrounding context. Garden by the Bay was designed by group of Wilkinson Eyre architects, Atelier One, Atelier Ten engineers and supported by CPG Consultants. With the brief of creating cool Mediterranean and tropical mountain environment in Singapore, one of the hottest and humid climate zone, the team was challenged with unconventional concepts that pushed them beyond the comfort zone. Climate evaluations have been carried by combination of thermal modelling, computation fluid dynamic and modelling software and input data is used as base to generate design solutions. 3As results, 101ha of Singapore’s Marina Bay houses three water front gardens, including central bay later developed as green promenanade link between East Bay and South Bay. The domes are made from composite steel grid-shell structure supported by radial web of steel ribs and entirely covered by double glazed glass. 4 Along with green house structure, integrated ventilation provides a controlled internal temperature that allow plants to grow naturally. Garden by the Bay is a great example of how we as designer can shape the future. Future in this project is not defined as an envisioned reality, 5 but as a means to understand present and push forward imaginative thoughts, particularly the idea of creating constrasting environment within another environment. Design has the ‘invisible power of God’ to decide what our future might look like. 6 What radical about this project is that it not only suggests new architectural design approach that can be potentially further developed but also raises awareness about the present and connects humans with their environment. Only by understanding the present and appreaciate our surroundings can we really find the ultimate sustainable solutions and move forward.1. Tony Fry, ‘Design futuring sustainability, ethics, and new practice’ (Berg Editorial Office: 2009), p1-16 (p.13) 2. Tony Fry, ‘Design futuring’, (p.2) 3. Meredith Davey, ‘Garden by the Bay: ecologically reflective design’ (Architectural Design: 2011 Nov, v.81, n.6, p.1008-11) 4. ArchDaily, ‘Gardens by the bay- Grant Associates’(ArchDaily, 2012) <http://www.archdaily. com/254471/gardens-by-the-bay-grant-associates> [accessed 7th August 2017]t 5. Anthony Dunne & Friona Raby, ‘Speculative everything design, fiction, and social dreaming’ (MIT Press: 2013), p1-9,33-45 6. Tony Fry, ‘Design futuring’, (p.6) 12 CONCEPTUALISATIONFIG.9: GARDEN BY THE BAY CONCEPTUALISATION 13DESIGN COMPUTATION Prior to the emergence of technology, design has been evolving around problem analysis and proposing solutions based on mathematical and physical experiement. It was not considered as a form of professions until Leon Battista Alberti in 1450s proposed methods such as scale rules, and modelling as a means to communicate between architects and builders1. Since then, 20th and 21 century have witness a dramatic development in architectural design, reaching beyond simple geometries and forms. However, more developments come with more challanges and constraints. There were not enough tools to fully exploit and display designers’ imagination. Turning to 21th century, with the rapid development of technology, designers are now about to create tools aiding their own design. Computers do not simply act as computerization tools, but gradually plays an active role in generating design ideas through complex information analysis process. An increasing number of projects using Rhino - Grasshopper as part of form-finding process, creating geometries that are beyond humans’ imagination acapacity. Eventually, computers open up infinitive opportunities to fully experiment the surrounding environment.FIG.10: COMPUTATIONAL GENERATION 14 CONCEPTUALISATIONHowever, along with their profound ability, computers are also criticized for undermining creative aspect of architecture. Despite their superb functions, computers lacks intinuition and creativity 2. If merely used as a tool to generating form without careful considerations, it would create more problems than solutions. Therefore, as Kalay stated in her journal, to achieve ultimate design, humans should effectively use computers as a tool to help with the information humans are lacking such as system analysis and programming; which consequently creates a “symbiotic design system” 3 . The following precedents depicts the potential of design computation but also looks at how to effectively use computers to generate design ideas.1. Rivka Oxman,Robert Oxman, ‘Theories of the Digital in Architecture’ (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), pp. 1–10 (p.3) 2. Yehuda E. Kalay, ‘Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design’ (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 (p. 22) 3. Yehuda E. Kalay, ‘Architecture’s New Media’ (p.22)CONCEPTUALISATION 15FIG.11: AL BAHR TOWERS 16 CONCEPTUALISATIONCASE STUDY A.2AL BAHR TOWERS FACADE by Aedas ArchitectsAl Bahr Towers are located in Abu Dhabi, servingas headquarters of the Abu Dhabi Invesment Council (ADIC). One main issue about the local area that many architects are facing is the summer heat that can reach roughly 48 0 C.1 To deal with the problem and provide cooling enviroment without excessive use of air conditioning, Aedas Architects in collaboration with Arup Engineers have generate an interactive facade called mashrabiya facade2 that open and close in response to the external environment, providing efficient shading for the towers (Figure 1). Inspired by the traditional Arabian Architecture, this facade is made of complex geometric patterns which were generated using high technology software. Triangular units arranged into “origami umbrellas” compositions folding at different angles in response to the sun path so that sun exposure of the facade is maximized throughout the day. 3 This system is more efficient than traditional horizontal and vertical shading system as it is more flexible and adaptive to the external environment.To generate such complex shape and operating system, computers have been actively involved as influential factor in design process. Packages such as Grasshopper, Digital Project (CATIA), Tekla, Inventor, etc. have been used to directly extract data from digital model to control CNC for fabrication. 5 Coordination of panels installation were also managed by using data collect from the software to provide to topographic survey machine on site. This precedent shows a clear shift from traditional digital desin, which often “follow linear process and consequently limit possibilities for interative modelling and exploration”6 to more adaptive & generative design that enables experiment of complex forms and systems. Computers are no longer a separate tool for digitalizing analog work, but as a design computation tools design process that directly affect the final outcome.Each device is divided into six triangular frames through a central actuator and piston. The actuator and sensor is controlled by Human/ Machine Interface (HMI) developed by Siemen’s platform, in which the software is linked to the sensors giving live feedback to the operator such as wind, light intensity, rain levels, etc. 4 This information is then used to direct the movement of the units.FIG.12: FACDE GEOMETRIC OPERATIONFIG.13: FACADE COMPUTATION PROCESS1. Leon Kaye, ‘World’s Largest Sun-Responsive Facade Shades Abu Dhabi’s Impressive Al Bahr Towers’ (Inhabitant, 2012)< http://inhabitat. com/abu-dhabis-stunning-al-behar-towers-are-shaded-by-a-transforming-geometric-facade/> [accessed 7th August 2017] 2. Leon Kaye, ‘World’s Largest Sun-Responsive Facade’, (p.2) 3. Abdulmajid Karanouh, Ethan Kerber, ‘ Innovations in dynamic architecture’ (Germany: University of Applied Sciences, vol.3, no.3, p.185-221, p.219) 4. Karanouh, Kerber ‘Innovation’, (p.218) 5. Karanouh, Kerber ‘Innovation’, (p.218) 6. Henry Marroquin, Mate Thitisawat, Emmanouil Vermisso, ‘Performative Parametric Design of Radiation Responsive Screens’ (Florida: Atlantic University, p.579) CONCEPTUALISATION 17CASE STUDY A.2WOOD PAVILIONby Wing Yi Hui and Lap Ming Wong E ven though computers are known for their fast and efficient data analysis and form generation, they are still limited at creativity and intuition, in which humans are capable of. 1This wood pavilion student project is an example of how we can effectively use computers as a generating tool to aid our design process instead of merely replying on them.A domed latticed pavilion made of thin laminated strips of wood joined at bended points was built by Architecture student Wing Yi Hui and Lap Ming Wong of the Oslo School of Architecture. The project is seeking the “equibrilium of precise control and natural response of the instrinsic wood capacity” 2 The process consists of series of intensive physical experiments with the help of computer. Moisture was added to the wooden strips during curving process to increase their structural capacity. During the swelling process, energy is stored within the micro structural system due to pressure difference among cells and by applying lamination constrainst before drying. 3 By testing this lamination process and deformation, various gemeotries and formed can be generated.The complexity of the system is achieved through precise control on laminaion areas, which create hollow structural suspport as well as connections and through natural response of wooden strips, which form enclosed and porous second layer. What interesting about this project is the harmonious use of the symbiotic design system. Due to the sophisticated arrangement and thinness of the wooden strips, replying solely on digital computation would not achieve accurate stimulation. Therefore, while computational program help calculated approximate dimensions, geometry and curvature, material performance and data collected from computer are physically tested (Figure 15) for further development. “Material performance became extremely crucial and prior as the system can never coincide with data generated from pure digital computation and fabrication”. 5 1. Yehuda E. Kalay, ‘Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design’ (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 (p. 22) 2. Catherin Warmann, ‘Wood Pavilion by Wing Yi Hui and Lap Ming Wong’(Dezeen, 2010) < complexity of the system is achieved through precise control on laminaion areas, which create hollow structural suspport as well as connections and through natural response of wooden strips, which form enclosed and porous second layer. 4by-wing-yi-hui-and-lap-ming-wong/>[accessed 7th August 2017] 3. Arch Daily, ‘Wood Pavilion’ (ArchDaily: 2014)< http:// 8177>[accessed 7th August 2017] 4.Catherin Warmann, ‘Wood Pavilion’. 5. Brady Peter, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic’ (Architectural Design, 83, Issue 2, pp.8-15, pp.15)FIG.14: WOOD PAVILION SHAPE EVALUATION 18 CONCEPTUALISATIONFIG.15: WOOD PAVILION PHYSICAL TESTFIG.16: WOOD PAVILIONCONCEPTUALISATION 19FIG.17: GEHRYâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S CONCEPTUAL SKETCH20 CONCEPTUALISATIONCOMPOSITION/ GENERATION There is a distinct difference between computerization and computation. While computerization is about digitalizing hand drawings and analog into a digital form that allow easy editing, computation is more about using computer as a tool to generate forms by collecting data and expressed as an algorithm.1 This approach allows endless exploration of potential ideas. Gradually, architecture is shifting from composition where forms made up of symmetrical and repetitious elements to more generative design which generates more free forms and complex shapes. The following precents are looking at how computers are used as a generation tool that plays important role in defining the outcome of the design ideas. 1. Brady Peter,â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thoughtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, Architectural Design, 83, Issue 2, pp. 08-15 (p.15)CONCEPTUALISATION 2122 CONCEPTUALISATION FIG.18: RESEARCH PAVILION 2015 INTERIOR SPACECASE STUDY A.3RESEARCH PAVILION 2015-2016 ICD-ITKE University of StuttgartResearch Pavilion 2015-2016 by ICD-ITKE University of Stuttgart is an example of how architects use computers to analyze data from nature and use it to generate complex forms.This year’s pavilion focus on investigating natural segmented plate structure, particu
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