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PACKAGING AND LABELING Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use. Packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells. In many countries it is fully integrated into government, busine
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  PACKAGING AND LABELING Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution,storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of  packages. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport,warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use. Packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs,and sells. In many countries it is fully integrated into government, business, and institutional,industrial, and personal use.The first packages used the natural materials available at the time: Baskets of reeds, wineskins (Bota bags), wooden boxes, pottery vases, ceramic amphorae, wooden barrels, woven bags, etc. Processedmaterials were used to form packages as they were developed: for example, early glass and bronzevessels. The earliest recorded use of paper for packaging dates back to 1035, when a Persian traveler visiting markets in Cairo noted that vegetables, spices and hardware were wrapped in paper for thecustomers after they were sold. [ Iron and tin plated steel were used to make cans in the early 19thcentury. Paperboardcartons and corrugated fiberboardboxes were first introduced in the late 19thcentury. Packaging advancements in the early 20th century included Bakelite closures on bottles,transparent cellophane overwraps and panels on cartons, increased processing efficiency andimproved food safety. As additional materials such as aluminum and several types of plastic weredeveloped, they were incorporated into packages to improve performance and functionality. In-plantrecycling has long been common for production of packaging materials. Post-consumer recycling of aluminum and paper based products has been economical for many years: since the 1980s, post-consumer recycling has increased due to curbside recycling, consumer awareness, and regulatory pressure. Packaging types Packaging may be looked at as being of several different types. For example a transport package or  distribution package can be the shipping container used to ship, store, and handle the product or inner packages. Some identify a consumer package as one which is directed toward a consumer or household.Packaging may be described in relation to the type of product being packaged: medical device packaging, bulk chemical packaging, over-the-counter drug packaging, retail food packaging, militarymateriel packaging, pharmaceutical packaging, etc.It is sometimes convenient to categorize packages by layer or function: primary , secondary , etc. y   Primary packaging is the material that first envelops the product and holds it. This usually isthe smallest unit of distribution or use and is the package which is in direct contact with thecontents. y   S econdary packaging is outside the primary packaging, perhaps used to group primary packages together. y   T ertiary packaging is used for bulk handling, warehouse storage and transport shipping. Themost common form is a palletizedunit load that packs tightly into containers.  Package labeling or  labeling is any written, electronic, or graphic communications on the packagingor on a separate but associated label. Th e purposes of packaging and package labels Label indicates net weight, composition, preparation, etc. The Union Flag, British Farm Standardtractor logo, and British Meat Quality Standard logo are also present.Packaging and package labeling have several objectives: y   P h ysical protection ± The objects enclosed in the package may require protection from,among other things, mechanical shock, vibration, electrostatic discharge, compression,temperature, etc. y   Barrier protection ± A barrier from oxygen, water vapor, dust, etc., is often required.Permeation is a critical factor in design. Some packages contain desiccants or Oxygenabsorbers to help extend shelf life. Modified atmospheres or controlled atmospheres are alsomaintained in some food packages. Keeping the contents clean, fresh, sterile and safe for theintended shelf life is a primary function. y   Containment or agglomeration ± Small objects are typically grouped together in one package for reasons of efficiency. For example, a single box of 1000 pencils requires less physical handling than 1000 single pencils. Liquids, powders, and granular materials needcontainment. y   Information transmission ± Packages and labels communicate how to use, transport,recycle, or dispose of the package or product. With pharmaceuticals, food, medical, andchemical products, some types of information are required by governments. Some packagesand labels also are used for track and trace purposes. y   M arketing ± The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to purchase the product. Package graphic design and physical design have beenimportant and constantly evolving phenomenon for several decades. Marketingcommunications and graphic design are applied to the surface of the package and (in manycases) the point of sale display. y   S ecurity ± Packaging can play an important role in reducing the security risks of shipment.Packages can be made with improved tamper resistance to deter tampering and also can havetamper-evident features to help indicate tampering. Packages can be engineered to helpreduce the risks of package pilferage: Some package constructions are more resistant to pilferage and some have pilfered indicating seals. Packages may include authentication sealsand use security printing to help indicate that the package and contents are not counterfeit.Packages also can include anti-theft devices, such as dye-packs, RFID tags, or electronicarticle surveillance tags that can be activated or detected by devices at exit points and requirespecialized tools to deactivate. Using packaging in this way is a means of loss prevention. y   Convenience ± Packages can have features that add convenience in distribution, handling,stacking, display, sale, opening, reclosing, use, dispensing, and reuse. y   Portion control ± Single serving or single dosage packaging has a precise amount of contentsto control usage. Bulk commodities (such as salt) can be divided into packages that are a moresuitable size for individual households. It is also aids the control of inventory: selling sealedone-liter-bottles of milk, rather than having people bring their own bottles to fill themselves. S ymbols used on packages and labels Many types of symbols for package labeling are nationally and internationally standardized. For consumer packaging, symbols exist for product certifications, trademarks, proof of purchase, etc.Some requirements and symbols exist to communicate aspects of consumer use and safety, for   example the estimated sign that notes conformance to EU weights and measures accuracy regulations.Examples of environmental and recycling symbols include the recycling symbol, the resinidentification code and the Green Dot .Bar codes , Universal Product Codes, and RFID labels are common to allow automated informationmanagement in logistics and retailing. Country of Origin Labeling is often used.

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Dec 14, 2017
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