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ASTM E119-2000.pdf

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  Designation: E 119 – 00a  An American National Standard Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation E 119; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of srcinal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon ( e ) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. INTRODUCTION The performance of walls, columns, floors, and other building members under fire exposureconditions is an item of major importance in securing constructions that are safe, and that are not amenace to neighboring structures nor to the public. Recognition of this is registered in the codes of many authorities, municipal and other. It is important to secure balance of the many units in a singlebuilding, and of buildings of like character and use in a community; and also to promote uniformityin requirements of various authorities throughout the country. To do this it is necessary that thefire-resistive properties of materials and assemblies be measured and specified according to a commonstandard expressed in terms that are applicable alike to a wide variety of materials, situations, andconditions of exposure.Such a standard is found in the methods that follow. They prescribe a standard exposing fire of controlled extent and severity. Performance is defined as the period of resistance to standard exposureelapsing before the first critical point in behavior is observed. Results are reported in units in whichfield exposures can be judged and expressed.The methods may be cited as the “Standard Fire Tests,” and the performance or exposure shall beexpressed as “2-h,” “6-h,” “ 1  ⁄  2 -h,” etc.When a factor of safety exceeding that inherent in the test conditions is desired, a proportionalincrease should be made in the specified time-classification period. 1. Scope 1.1 The test methods described in this fire-test-responsestandard are applicable to assemblies of masonry units and tocomposite assemblies of structural materials for buildings,including bearing and other walls and partitions, columns,girders, beams, slabs, and composite slab and beam assembliesfor floors and roofs. They are also applicable to other assem-blies and structural units that constitute permanent integralparts of a finished building.1.2 It is the intent that classifications shall register compara-tive performance to specific fire-test conditions during theperiod of exposure and shall not be construed as havingdetermined suitability for use under other conditions or afterfire exposure.1.3  This standard is used to measure and describe theresponse of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and  flame under controlled conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products or assemblies under actual fire conditions. .1.4 These test methods prescribe a standard fire exposurefor comparing the test results of building construction assem-blies. The results of these tests are one factor in assessingpredicted fire performance of building construction and assem-blies. Application of these test results to predict the perfor-mance of actual building construction requires the evaluationof test conditions.1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regardedas the standard. The values given in parentheses are forinformation only.1.6  This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.7 The text of this standard references notes and footnoteswhich provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes(excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be consideredas requirements of the standard. 1 These test methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E05 on FireStandards and are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E05.11 on ConstructionAssemblies.Current edition approved July 10, 2000. Published October 2000. Originallypublished as C 19 – 1917 T. Last previous edition E 119 – 00.These test methods, of which the present standard represents a revision, wereprepared by Sectional Committee on Fire Tests of Materials and Construction, underthe joint sponsorship of the National Bureau of Standards, the ANSI Fire ProtectionGroup, and ASTM, functioning under the procedure of the American NationalStandards Institute. 1 Copyright © ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. COPYRIGHT merican Society for Testing and MaterialsLicensed by Information Handling Services COPYRIGHT American Society for Testing and MaterialsLicensed by Information Handling Services  2. Referenced Documents 2.1  ASTM Standards: C 569 Test Method for Indentation Hardness of PreformedThermal Insulations 2 E 176 Terminology of Fire Standards 3 3. Terminology 3.1  Definitions —For definitions of terms found in this testmethod, refer to Terminology E 176. 4. Significance and Use 4.1 This test method is intended to evaluate the duration forwhich the types of assemblies noted in 1.1 contain a fire, retaintheir structural integrity, or exhibit both properties dependentupon the type of assembly involved during a predetermined testexposure.4.2 The test exposes a specimen to a standard fire controlledto achieve specified temperatures throughout a specified timeperiod. When required, the fire exposure is followed by theapplication of a specified standard fire hose stream. The testprovides a relative measure of the fire-test-response of compa-rable assemblies under these fire exposure conditions. Theexposure is not representative of all fire conditions becauseconditions vary with changes in the amount, nature anddistribution of fire loading, ventilation, compartment size andconfiguration, and heat sink characteristics of the compartment.Variation from the test conditions or specimen construction,such as size, materials, method of assembly, also affects thefire-test-response. For these reasons, evaluation of the variationis required for application to construction in the field.4.3 The test standard provides for the following:4.3.1 For walls, partitions, and floor or roof assemblies:4.3.1.1 Measurement of the transmission of heat.4.3.1.2 Measurement of the transmission of hot gasesthrough the assembly, sufficient to ignite cotton waste.4.3.1.3 For load bearing elements, measurement of the loadcarrying ability of the test specimen during the test exposure.4.3.2 For individual load bearing assemblies such as beamsand columns:4.3.2.1 Measurement of the load carrying ability under thetest exposure with consideration for the end support conditions(that is, restrained or not restrained).4.4 The test standard does not provide the following:4.4.1 Full information as to performance of assembliesconstructed with components or lengths other than those tested.4.4.2 Evaluation of the degree by which the assemblycontributes to the fire hazard by generation of smoke, toxicgases, or other products of combustion.4.4.3 Measurement of the degree of control or limitation of  the passage of   smoke or products of combustion through theassembly.4.4.4 Simulation of the fire behavior of joints betweenbuilding elements such as floor-wall or wall-wall, etc., connec-tions.4.4.5 Measurement of flame spread over surface of testedelement.4.4.6 The effect of fire endurance of conventional openingsin the assembly, that is, electrical receptacle outlets, plumbingpipe, etc., unless specifically provided for in the constructiontested. CONTROL OF FIRE TESTS5. Time-Temperature Curve 5.1 The conduct of fire tests of materials and constructionshall be controlled by the standard time-temperature curveshown in Fig. 1. The points on the curve that determine itscharacter are: 1000°F (538°C) at 5 min1300°F (704°C) at 10 min1550°F (843°C) at 30 min1700°F (927°C) at 1 h1850°F (1010°C) at 2 h2000°F (1093°C) at 4 h2300°F (1260°C) at 8 h or over 5.2 For a closer definition of the time-temperature curve, seeAppendix X1. N OTE  1—  Recommendations for Recording Fuel Flow to Furnace Burners —The following provides guidance on the desired characteristicsof instrumentation for recording the flow of fuel to the furnace burners.Fuel flow data may be useful for a furnace heat balance analysis, formeasuring the effect of furnace or control changes, and for comparing theperformance of assemblies of different properties in the fire endurancetest. 4 Record the integrated (cumulative) flow of gas (or other fuel) to thefurnace burners at 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, and every 30 min thereafter ormore frequently. Total gas consumed during the total test period is also tobe determined. A recording flow meter has advantages over periodicreadings on an instantaneous or totalizing flow meter. Select a measuringand recording system to provide flow rate readings accurate to within 6 5 %. 2  Discontinued  —See  1987 Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 04.06. 3  Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 04.07. 4 Harmathy, T. Z., “Design of Fire Test Furnaces,”  Fire Technology , Vol. 5, No.2, May 1969, pp. 146–150; Seigel, L. G.,“ Effects of Furnace Design on FireEndurance Test Results,”  Fire Test Performance, ASTM STP 464 , ASTM, 1970, pp.57–67; and Williamson, R. B., and Buchanan, A. H., “A Heat Balance Analysis of the Standard Fire Endurance Test.” FIG. 1 Time-Temperature Curve E 119 2 COPYRIGHT merican Society for Testing and MaterialsLicensed by Information Handling Services COPYRIGHT American Society for Testing and MaterialsLicensed by Information Handling Services  Report the type of fuel, its higher (gross) heating value, and the fuelflow (corrected to standard conditions of 60°F (16°C) and 30.0 in. Hg) asa function of time. 6. Furnace Temperatures 6.1 The temperature fixed by the curve shall be the averagetemperature from not fewer than nine thermocouples for afloor, roof, wall, or partition and not fewer than eight thermo-couples for a structural column. Furnace thermocouples shallbe symmetrically disposed and distributed to show the tem-perature near all parts of the sample, the thermocouples beingenclosed in protection tubes of such materials and dimensionsthat the time constant of the protected thermocouple assemblylies within the range from 5.0 to 7.2 min (Note 2). The exposedlength of the pyrometer tube and thermocouple in the furnacechamber shall be not less than 12 in. (305 mm). It is notprohibited to use other types of protecting tubes or pyrometersthat, under test conditions, give the same indications as theabove standard within the limit of accuracy that applies forfurnace-temperature measurements.6.1.1 For floors and columns, the junction of the thermo-couples shall be placed 12 in. (305 mm) away from theexposed face of the sample at the beginning of the test and,during the test, shall not touch the sample as a result of itsdeflection.6.1.2 For walls and partitions, the thermocouples shall beplaced 6 in. (152 mm) away from the exposed face of thesample at the beginning of the test, and shall not touch thesample during the test, in the event of deflecton. N OTE  2—Atypical thermocouple assembly meeting these time constantrequirements may be fabricated by fusion-welding the twisted ends of No.18 gage Chromel-Alumel wires, mounting the leads in porcelain insulatorsand inserting the assembly so the thermocouple bead is  1  ⁄  2 in. (13 mm)from the sealed end of a standard weight nominal  1  ⁄  2 -in. iron, steel, orInconel 5 pipe. The time constant is either measured or calculated fromknowledge of its physical and thermal properties. The time constant forthis and for several other thermocouple assemblies was measured in1976. 6 6.2 The temperatures shall be read at intervals not exceed-ing 5 min during the first 2 h, and thereafter the intervals shallnot exceed 10 min.6.3 The accuracy of the furnace control shall be such thatthe area under the time-temperature curve, obtained by aver-aging the results from the pyrometer readings, is within 10 %of the corresponding area under the standard time-temperaturecurve shown in Fig. 1 for fire tests of 1 h or less duration,within 7.5 % for those over 1 h and not more than 2 h, andwithin 5 % for tests exceeding 2 h in duration. 7. Temperatures of Unexposed Surfaces of Floors, Roofs,Walls, and Partitions 7.1 Temperatures of unexposed surfaces shall be measuredwith thermocouples or thermometers (Note 4) placed underdry, felted pads meeting the requirements listed in Annex A1.The wire leads of the thermocouple or the stem of thethermometer shall have an immersion under the pad and be incontact with the unexposed surface for not less than 3 1  ⁄  2  in. (89mm). The hot junction of the thermocouple or the bulb of thethermometer shall be placed approximately under the center of the pad. The outside diameter of protecting or insulating tubes,and of thermometer stems, shall be not more than  5  ⁄  16  in. (8mm). The pad shall be held firmly against the surface, and shallfit closely about the thermocouples or thermometer stems.Thermometers shall be of the partial-immersion type, with alength of stem, between the end of the bulb and the immersionmark, of 3 in. (76 mm). The wires for the thermocouple in thelength covered by the pad shall be not heavier than No. 18 B& S gage (0.04 in.) (1.02 mm) and shall be electricallyinsulated with heat-resistant and moisture-resistant coatings. N OTE  3—For the purpose of testing roof assemblies, the unexposedsurface shall be defined as the surface exposed to ambient air.N OTE  4—Under certain conditions it may be unsafe or impracticable touse thermometers. 7.2 Temperatures shall be recorded at not fewer than ninepoints on the surface. Five of these shall be symmetricallydisposed, one to be approximately at the center of the speci-men, and four at approximately the center of its quartersections. The other four shall be located to obtain representa-tive information on the performance of the construction undertest. The thermocouples shall not be located closer to the edgesof the test specimen than one and one-half times the thicknessof the construction, or 12 in. (305 mm). Exception: those casesin which there is an element of the construction that is nototherwise represented in the remainder of the test specimen.The thermocouples shall not be located opposite or on top of beams, girders, pilasters, or other structural members if tem-peratures at such points will be lower than at more represen-tative locations. The thermocouples shall not be located overfasteners such as screws, nails, or staples that will be higher orlower in temperature than at a more representative location if the aggregate area of any part of such fasteners on theunexposed surface is less than 1 % of the area within any 6-in.(152-mm) diameter circle, unless the fasteners extend throughthe assembly.7.3 Temperature readings shall be taken at intervals notexceeding 15 min until a reading exceeding 212°F (100°C) hasbeen obtained at any one point. Thereafter the readings may betaken more frequently at the discretion of the testing body, butthe intervals need not be less than 5 min.7.4 Where the conditions of acceptance place a limitation onthe rise of temperature of the unexposed surface, the tempera-ture end point of the fire endurance period shall be determinedby the average of the measurements taken at individual points;except that if a temperature rise 30 % in excess of the specifiedlimit occurs at any one of these points, the remainder shall beignored and the fire endurance period judged as ended. CLASSIFICATION AS DETERMINED BY TEST8. Report of Results 8.1 Results shall be reported in accordance with the perfor-mance in the tests prescribed in these test methods. They shallbe expressed in time periods of resistance, to the nearest 5 Inconel is a registered tradename of INCO Alloys, Inc., 3800 Riverside Dr.,P. O. Box 1958, Huntingdon, WV 25720. 6 Supporting data are available from ASTM Headquarters. RequestRR: E05–1001. E 119 3 COPYRIGHT merican Society for Testing and MaterialsLicensed by Information Handling Services COPYRIGHT American Society for Testing and MaterialsLicensed by Information Handling Services  integral minute. Reports shall include observations of details of the behavior of the material or construction during the test andafter the furnace fire is extinguished, including information ondeformation, spalling, cracking, burning of the specimen or itscomponent parts, continuance of flaming, and production of smoke.8.2 Reports of tests involving wall, floor, beam, or ceilingconstructions in which restraint is provided against expansion,contraction, or rotation of the construction shall describe themethod used to provide this restraint.8.2.1 Describe the physical details of the restraint systemand provide information to define the longitudinal and rota-tional resistance of the test specimen by the restraint system.8.2.2 Describe the restraint conditions with regard to thefree movement of the test specimen prior to encounteringresistance to expansion, contraction or rotation.8.3 Reports of tests in which other than maximum loadconditions are imposed shall fully define the conditions of loading used in the test and shall be designated in the title of the report of the test as a restricted load condition.8.4 When the indicated resistance period is  1  ⁄  2  h or over,determined by the average or maximum temperature rise on theunexposed surface or within the test sample, or by failure underload, a correction shall be applied for variation of the furnaceexposure from that prescribed, where it will affect the classi-fication, by multiplying the indicated period by two thirds of the difference in area between the curve of average furnacetemperature and the standard curve for the first three fourths of the period and dividing the product by the area between thestandard curve and a base line of 68°F (20°C) for the same partof the indicated period, the latter area increased by 54°F·h or30°C·h (3240°F·min or 1800°C·min) to compensate for thethermal lag of the furnace thermocouples during the first part of the test. For fire exposure in the test higher than standard, theindicated resistance period shall be increased by the amount of the correction and be similarly decreased for fire exposurebelow standard. N OTE  5—The correction can be expressed by the following equation: C  5 2  I  ~  A 2  A s !  /3 ~  A s 1  L ! where: C   = correction in the same units as I,  I   = indicated fire-resistance period,  A  = area under the curve of indicated average furnace temperaturefor the first three fourths of the indicated period,  A s  = area under the standard furnace curve for the same part of theindicated period, and  L  = lag correction in the same units as A and A s (54°F·h or 30°C·h(3240°F·min or 1800°C·min)). 8.5 Unsymmetrical wall assemblies are tested with eitherside exposed to the fire, and the report shall indicate the side soexposed. When both sides are tested, the report then shall soindicate the fire endurance classification applicable to eachside. TEST SPECIMEN9. Test Specimen 9.1 The test specimen shall be truly representative of theconstruction for which classification is desired, as to materials,workmanship, and details such as dimensions of parts, andshall be built under conditions representative of those obtainingas practically applied in building construction and operation.The physical properties of the materials and ingredients used inthe test specimen shall be determined and recorded.9.2 The size and dimensions of the test specimen specifiedherein shall apply for rating constructions of dimensions withinthe range employed in buildings. When the conditions of uselimit the construction to smaller dimensions, the dimensions of the specimen shall be reduced proportionately for a testqualifying them for such restricted use.9.3 Specimens designed with a built-up roof shall be testedwith a roof covering of 3-ply, 15-lb (6.8-kg) type felt, with notmore than 120 lb (54 kg) per square (100 ft 2 (9 m  2 )) of hotmopping asphalt without gravel surfacing. Tests of assemblieswith this covering do not preclude the field use of othercoverings with a larger number of plys of felt, with a greateramount of asphalt or with gravel surfacing.9.4 Roofing systems designed for other than the use of built-up roof coverings shall be tested using materials anddetails of construction representative of field application. CONDUCT OF FIRE TESTS10. Fire Endurance Test 10.1 Continue the fire endurance test on the specimen withits applied load, if any, until failure occurs, or until thespecimen has withstood the test conditions for a period equal tothat herein specified in the conditions of acceptance for thegiven type of construction.10.2 Continue the test beyond the time the fire enduranceclassification is determined when the purpose in doing so is toobtain additional data. 11. Hose Stream Test 11.1 Where required by the conditions of acceptance, thehose stream test shall be conducted to subject the specimendescribed in 11.2 or 11.3 to the impact, erosion, and coolingeffects of a hose stream.11.1.1  Exemption —The hose stream test shall not be re-quired in the case of constructions having a resistance period,indicated in the fire endurance test, of less than 1 h.11.2 The hose stream test shall be conducted on a duplicatetest specimen.11.2.1 The duplicate specimen shall be exposed to theeffects of the hose stream immediately after being subjected toa fire endurance test for a time period of one-half the fireendurance classification period determined from the fire endur-ance test on the initial specimen.11.2.2 The length of time that the duplicate specimen issubjected to the fire endurance test shall not exceed 1 h.11.3  Optional Program —As an alternative procedure, con-duct the hose stream test on the initially tested specimenimmediately following its fire endurance test.11.4 In conducting the hose stream test, direct the hosestream first at the middle and then at all parts of the exposedface of the specimen. Any changes in direction shall be madeslowly.11.5  Stream Equipment and Details —The stream shall bedelivered through a 2 1  ⁄  2 -in. (64-mm) hose discharging through E 119 4 COPYRIGHT merican Society for Testing and MaterialsLicensed by Information Handling Services COPYRIGHT American Society for Testing and MaterialsLicensed by Information Handling Services

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