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Biografi Ibn al-'Arabi Dan Sumbangannya Dalam Bidang Sejarah

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Ibn al-’Arabi (468-543H/1076-1148M) merupakan seorang ilmuan Andalus (Sepanyol) yang muncul pada abad ke-5 hijrah. Beliau dikenali sebagai seorang tokoh ulama’ yang telah banyak meninggalkan sumbangan dalam bidang keilmuan Islam. Pada hari ini, nama
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  BIOGRAFI IBN AL-‘ARABI DAN SUMBANGAN DALAM BIDANGSEJARAH ISLAM AZMUL FAHIMI KAMARUZAMAN ROSLAN ABDUL RAHMAN ABSTRAK  Ibn al-’Arabi (468-543H/!"6-48M# $%r&'aan )%*ran+ il$&an An,al&)(S%'an*l# an+ $&n.&l 'a,a aba, %-5 i0ra1 B%lia& ,i%nali )%ba+ai)%*ran+ 2** &la$a’ an+ bana $%nin++alan )&$ban+an ,ala$ bi,an+%il$&an I)la$1 a,a ari ini na$a b%lia& )%lal& ,i'%2i ,ala$ '%rbaa)anil$ia 2%r&2a$a '%rbaa)an bi,an+ fqh, hadith  ,an tasir  1 Ki2ab-i2ab b%lia&,ala$ bi,an+-bi,an+ 2%r)%b&2 2%la ,i0a,ian r&0&an *l% +%n%ra)i $a)aini1 S%lain 2%r%nal ,ala$ bi,an+ fqh  hadith  ,an tasir,  ra$ai an+ 2i,a$%n+%2a&i baaa Ibn al-’Arabi 0&+a $%$ilii )&$ban+an ,ala$ bi,an+)%0ara I)la$1 Ini ,ib&2ian $%lal&i %$&n.&lan i2ab al-’Awasim Min al-Qawasim  iai2& an2ara ara b%lia& an+ 2%rair ,ia)ilan )%b%l&$%aa2an1 7ala&'&n i2ab al-’Awasim Min al-Qawasim  b&anla )%b&aara )%0ara )%'%r2i ara al-abari ,an al-Ma)’&,i na$&n ,i ,ala$na2%r,a'a2 '%rbaa)an $%n+%nai i)&-i)& *n2r*9%r)i $%liba2an 'ara )aaba2Nabi M&a$$a, SA71 Ini )%.ara 2i,a lan+)&n+ $%$b&2ian &0&,na)&$ban+an Ibn al-’Arabi ,ala$ bi,an+ )%0ara I)la$1 :&)2%r& i2& 2&0&an'%n&li)an ar2i%l ini iala &n2& $%nin0a& '%n+liba2an Ibn al-’Arabi ,ala$bi,an+ )%0ara $%lal&i '%n+a)ilan i2ab al-’Awasim Min al-Qawasim 1 Ba+i$%n.a'ai 2&0&an i2& ,a2a ,an $al&$a2 b%rai2an bi*+ra; Ibn al-’Arabi ,an)&$ban+an b%lia& ,ala$ bi,an+ %il$&an ,i'%r*l%i $%lal&i a0ian%'&)2aaan iai2& r&0&an % a2a) )&$b%r 'ri$%r ,an )%&n,%r1 Ha)il a0ian$%n,a'a2i baaa Ibn al-<Arabi $%$'&nai )&$ban+an ,ala$ bi,an+)%0ara $%n%r&)i '%n+a)ilan arana al-’Awasim Min al-Qawasim  ,an&la)an b%lia& 2%ra,a' i)&-i)& *n2r*9%r)i 'ara )aaba2 Nabi M&a$$a,SA7 an+ ,i$&a2an ,ala$ i2ab 2%r)%b&21Ka2a K&n.i= bi*+ra; Ibn al-’Arabi al-’Awasim Min al-Qawasim  )%0ara I)la$1 PENGENALAN Al->a,i Ab& Bar Ibn al-<Arabi (468-543H/!"6-48M# a,ala )%*ran+2** an+ 2i,a a)in+ ,ala$ bi,an+ %il$&an I)la$1 Na$a b%lia& )%lal&,i'%2i *l% 'ara '%n+a0i $a)a ini 2%r&2a$a ,ala$ bi,an+ a0ian$%liba2an tasir   fqh  ,an hadith 1 Kara-ara b%lia& ,ala$ bi,an+ 2%r)%b&2  2%la $%$b%ri i$'a an+ b%)ar ,ala$ bi,an+ %il$&an I)la$ ,an )%ali+&)2%la ,i$anaaa2an *l% )%baa+ian b%)ar &$a2 I)la$ $a)a ini1 S%lain,ari $%nab&r 0a)a ,ala$ bi,an+-bi,an+ 2%r)%b&2 b%lia& 0&+a $%$'&nai)&$ban+an ,ala$ bi,an+ )%0ara I)la$1 7ala&'&n na$a b%lia& 2i,a2%r%nal ,ala$ bi,an+ )%0ara )%'%r2i na$a al-abari al-Ma)’&,i ,an 'ara)%0araan an+ lain na$&n b%lia& 2%2a' $%$'&nai )&$ban+an ,ala$bi,an+ )%0ara I)la$ $%lal&i '%n+a)ilan ara b%lia& al-‘Awasim Min al-Qawasim 1 . Ir*nina al-‘Awasim  b&an )%b&a ara an+ $%$a'aran)%0ara I)la$ )%.ara %)%l&r&an1 %rbaa)an al-‘Awasim  $%n0&r&) %'a,a'%r$a)alaan ai,a ,an )aria1 Di a2a) lan,a)an inila '%rbaa)an$%n+%nai i)&-i)& *n2r*9%r)i 'ara )aaba2 Nabi M&a$$a, SA7 2%la,i%$&aan *l% Ibn al-<Arabi ,ala$ al-‘Awasim  %rana '%r)*alan i)&-i)&*n2r*9%r)i 'ara )aaba2 Nabi M&a$$a, SA7 $%liba2an '%+an+an ai,a)%*ran+ M&)li$1 :aa'an ,an 'an,an+an b%lia& 2%ra,a' i)&-i)& 2%r)%b&22%la $%n,a'a2 '%ra2ian %banaan 'ara il$&an 'a,a ari ini1 Dala$*n2%) inila 'ara )ar0ana $%n+la)i;a)ian Ibn al-<Arabi )%ba+ai )%*ran+&la$a’ an+ $%$'&nai )&$ban+an ,ala$ bi,an+ )%0ara I)la$1 Na$&n$%$an,an+an 2i,a bana '%n&li)an an+ $%$bin.an+an 2%n2an+)&$ban+an Ibn al-<Arabi ,ala$ bi,an+ )%0ara I)la$ 0&)2%r& i2& ar2i%l iniaan $%$b%rian +a$baran $%n+%nai a)'%-a)'% an+ $%la2ari%i,&'an Ibn al-<Arabi )%'%r2i la2ar b%laan+ ,iri '%n,i,ian ,an bi,an+%r0aa an+ $%n+0&)2i;a)ian '%n+liba2an b%lia& ,ala$ bi,an+ )%0araI)la$1 LATAR BELAKANG IBN AL-‘ARABI Na$a )%b%nar Ibn al-<Arabi iala M&a$$a, bin Ab,&lla bin M&a$$a,bin Ab,&lla bin A$a, bin al-<Arabi al-M&a’;ri1 Dini)baan %'a,a Ma’a;rbin ?a’&r bin Mali (al-Ka2ib @5 @ al-Daabi !! @8#1 B%lia&,ilairan ,i I)bilia (S%9illa# An,al&) (S%'an*l#   'a,a $ala$ a$i) Sa’ban 2a&n 468H/!"5M (al-Ka2ib @5 @#1B%lia& ,i%nali ,%n+an kuniyah Ibn al-’Arabi ,%n+an ba.aan ma’riat  1 Ini$%$b%Caan b%lia& ,%n+an Ibn& ’Arabi 3  ,%n+an ba.aan nakirah, iai2& &la$a aa)& 2%r%nal (al-Ba,i ! 8#1 :ia ,i)%b&2 Ibn al-’Arabi $aa iana  S%l%'a) ini ,i)%b&2 al-‘Awasim   N%+ara S%'an*l $*,%n 'a,a ari ini 2%rl%2a ,i S%$%nan0&n+ Ib%ria b%r)%$'a,an ,%n+an *r2&+al ,i 2i$&r ,an %ran.i) ,i &2ara (Mar&ia !!3 i#1 3 Ibn <Arabi a2a& na$a )%b%nar b%lia& M&a$$a, bin <Ali b%r%2&r&nan Ha2i$ al- a’i ,ilairan 'a,a " Ra$a,an 56!H b%r)a$aan ,%n+an @ :&lai 65M (S1A1>1H&)aini @@!@#1  $%r&0& %'a,a al-Faqih al-Maliki  $anaala Ibn ’Arabi $%r&0& %'a,a al-Suf 1 %n&li) b%r'%n,a'a2 '%rb%Caan ini '%n2in+ &n2& ,i%2a&i ba+i$%n+%la b%rla&na %%lir&an ,ala$ $%n&ilan 'an,an+an )%r2a$%nan,aran a2a an+ b%rai2an1Diriaa2an baaa na)ab %2&r&nan Ibn al-<Arabi b%ra)al ,aribaa+ian )%la2an S%$%nan0&n+ ana Arab iai2& ,ari ?a$an1 M%n&r&2.a.a2an Ra+ib %2&r&nan Ibn al-<Arabi b%ra)al ,ari abila M&a’;r an+$%n%2a' ,i ?a$an ,an b%ri0ra % Sa$ )%2%r&)na $%$a)&i An,al&))%r2a $%n,ia$i baa+ian 2i$&r An,al&) (Ra+ib !! 33#1 M%n&r&2 Sa’i,A’rab abila M&a’;r b%ra)al ,ari %2&r&nan Ma’a;r bin ?a’&r bin Mali binal-Hari2 bin M&rra an+ b%r)a$b&n+ na)ab %2&r&nan ,%n+an Bani >a2an(Sa’i, @8" @#1 Manaala M&bara&ri ,ala$ &la)anna 2%n2an+ a)al &)&lban+)a Arab $%na2aan baaa Bani >a2an a,ala abila Arab an+$%n,ia$i ?a$an1 M%n&r&2na la+i Bani >a2an 2%r,iri ,ari'a,a ,&a abila&2a$a iai2& abila Hi$ar ,an abila Kalan1 Kabila Kalan 2%r,iri,ari'a,a )&&-)&& %.il iai2& Ha$,an La$ :&Ca$ ,an Ma’a;r1 M%r%a2%la $%nin++alan ?a$an ,an b%ri0ra % aa)an-aa)an ,i baa+ian&2ara S%$%nan0&n+ ana Arab )%l%'a) b%rla&na '%ri)2ia ban0ir b%)aran+ $%$&)naan ar2a b%n,a $%r%a (M&bara'&ri !! #1 K%)an ,ari'a,a ban0ir b%)ar an+ $%lan,a baa+ian )%la2anS%$%nan0&n+ ana Arab $%n%baban abila Ma’a;r b%ri0ra % )%ra2a2%$'a2 2%r$a)& An,al&)1 M%n&r&2 al-Sa$’ani abila Ma’a;r %banaan$%r%a $%n%2a' ,i M%)ir ,an b%ri0ra % An,al&) )%2%la &$a2 I)la$b%r0aa $%n+&a)ai ilaa 2%r)%b&2 (al-Sa$’ani @@@ 3#1 Ha)il'%n+i0raan 2%r)%b&2 lairna Ibn al-’Arabi 2** &la$a’ an+ 2%r%nal1Dari'a,a ran2aian na)ab %2&r&nan Ibn al-’Arabi ,a'a2 ,iaa$i baaab%lia& )%b%narna b%r%2&r&nan Arab ?a$an1 Aana b%rna$a Ab,&lla bin M&a$$a, bin Ab,&lla bin A$a,bin al-’Arabi1 B%lia& ,i%nali ,%n+an kuniyah  Ab& M&a$$a, (al-Zaabi!! @8#1 Dilairan 'a,a 2a&n 435H ,an $%nin++al ,&nia 'a,a 2a&n4@3H (Sa’i, @8" !#1 Aana $%r&'aan )%*ran+ &la$a’ an+b%ri,$a2 ,i baa %ra0aan Ban& ’Abba, an+ $%$%rin2a I)bilia 'a,a%ra Muluk al-Tawa’i   (4!3H/!M#1 M%n&r&2 al-Zaabi Ab& M&a$$a, $%r&'aan )%*ran+ an+ &a2b%r'%+an+ %'a,a $aCab Zairi )%2%la b%r+&r& ,%n+an Ibn HaC$ (1456H/!64M#    iai2& )%*ran+ &la$a’ an+ 2%r%nal ,i E*r,*9a (al-Daabi!!@8#1 Ibn HaC$ a2a& na$a '%n&na iala al-Ha;C Ab& M&a$$a, Alibin A$a, bin Sa’i, bin HaC$ ,ilairan ,i E*r,*9a 'a,a 2a&n 384H/@@4M1K%%ba2an Ibn al-HaC$ ,ala$ bi,an+ il$& )an+a2 2%r)%rla 2%r&2a$a ,ala$bi,an+ fqh 1 B%lia& )an+a2 &a2 b%r'%+an+ %'a,a $aCab Zairi1 Ibn al-HaC$ $%nin++al ,&nia 'a,a $ala$ I)nin 5 :&lai !64M/8 Sa’ban 456H%2ia b%r&)ia " 2a&n (al-A$in @"534@#1  M%n&r&2 M1 S&la$ani Ab& M&a$$a, 2%la b%r+&r& ,%n+an IbnHaC$ )%la$a 2&0& 2a&n )%in++a b%lia& ,i%nali )%ba+ai )%*ran+ an+&a2 b%r'%+an+ %'a,a $aCab Zairi (M1 S&la$ani @86 85#1 Manaala$%n&r&2 Ab,1 al-Ha$i, '&la Ab& M&a$$a, a,ala )%*ran+ &la$a’ fqh an+ $%$'&nai %,&,&an ,ala$ '%n2a,biran %ra0aan Ban& ’Abba, (Ab,1al-Ha$i, @65#1 D%$iian 0&+a &la)an al-Ka2ib an+ $%n%b&2baaa Ab& M&a$$a, )%ba+ai )%*ran+ ulama’ al-Daulah  an+b%r$a)&, &la$a’ an+ 2%rliba2 ,ala$ '%r2a,biran %ra0aan (al-Ka2ib@5 @#1 Ab& M&a$$a, a,ala )%*ran+ il$&an an+ $%n,a'a2 %,&,&an,ala$ '%$%rin2aan %ra0aan Ban& ’Abba, iai2& 'a,a %ra '%$%rin2aan al-Mu’tamid  (1488H# ,an ,ilan2i *l% )%ba+ai wair   ,i I)bilia1 H&b&n+an al-Mu’tamid  ,%n+an Ab& M&a$$a, ,i)ia2an *l% al-M&ari )%'%r2i&b&n+an Kalia al-Ma’$&n ,%n+an Ibn Abi D&a2 ,i Ba+,a, (al-M&ari@8 56#1 K%l&ar+a Ibn al-’Arabi ,ari )%b%la ib& '&la 2%r,iri ,ari'a,a ,a2&naan+ b%rna$a Ab& Ha) ’U$ar bin al-Ha))an al-H&Cani (146!H#1 B%lia&a,ala )%*ran+ &la$a’ an+ $%n%2a' ,i I)bilia ,an )%*ran+ an+ lan2an+$%n%n2an+ ,a)ar '%$%rin2aan %ra0aan Ban& ’Abba, lan2aran 2i,ab%r)%2&0& ,%n+an ,a)ar '%$%rin2aan %ra0aan 2%r)%b&2 (M&a$$a, @@!#1 Da)ar an+ 2i,a ,i'%r)%2&0&ina iala ,a)ar l&ar %ra0aan-%ra0aan'a,a %ra Muluk al-Tawa’i   2%r$a)& %ra0aan Ban& ’Abba, an+ $%$%rin2aI)bilia1 Sia' $%$%n2in+an ,iri )%n,iri 2an'a $%n&$'&an %'a,a 'r*)%)'%na2&an ,an '%n,a$aian ,ala$ alan+an $a)araa2 I)la$ ,i An,al&)$%r&'aan ,a)ar an+ ,ia$alan *l% )%2ia' %ra0aan I)la$ ,ala$$%n2a,bir ilaa-ilaa ,i An,al&)1 K%lan2an+an b%lia& 2%la$%n%baban b%lia& ,ib&n& *l% al-Mu’tadid  (146H# '%$%rin2a%ra0aan Ban& ’Abba, an+ %2i+a1 M%n&r&2 Sa’i, ’A’rab '%$b&n&an 2%r)%b&2 )%ba+ai )ala )a2& a2*ran+ $%n%baban %0a2&an %ra0aan Ban& ’Abba, (Sa’i, @8" #1Na$&n 'r*)%) %0a2&an i2& b%rla& )%.ara b%r'%rin+a2 ,i $ana ana%'a,a ’U$ar bin al-Ha))an al-H&Cani iai2& Ab& al->a))i$ al-H&Cani(15H# b%r2in,a $%n+&n,an+ %ra0aan M&rabi2&n iai2& )%b&a %ra0aanI)la$ an+ $%$%rin2a &2ara Aria 'i$'inan ?&)& a)i;n (15!!H# &n2&$%n+&lin+an ,an )%2%r&)na $%na$a2an '%$%rin2aan %ra0aan Ban&’Abba, ,i I)bilia ,an %ra0aan-%ra0aan lain 'a,a %ra Muluk al-Tawa’i  (Sa’i, @8"  G M&a$$a, @@ !#1K%ra0aan Ban& ’Abba, b%ra)al ,ari abila La$ an+ $%$%rin2aI)bilia ,ari 2a&n 44H/!3M )%in++a 2a&n 484H/!@M1 KabilaLa$ b%ra)al ,ari ?a$an (M&bara'&ri !! #1 M%n&r&2 Ra+ib%ra0aan Ban& ’Abba, ,ia)a)an *l% I)$ail bin ’Abba, (144H# 'a,a air&r&n %-4 i0ra ,an aal &r&n %-5 i0ra )%l%'a) %0a2&an %ra0aanBani U$aa ,i S%'an*l (Ra+ib !! 3@#1  M%n&r&2 )%0ara '%$%rin2aan ,an '%n+&a)aan %ra0aan Ban& ’Abba,% a2a) ilaa I)bilia b%r$&la 'a,a 2a&n 44H )%2%la b%rairna'%$%rin2aan ’Amir   ,i An,al&) (Ab& Ni,a’ !!6 5#1 K%ra0aan Ban& ’Abba,,ibari)i *l% %$'a2 *ran+ '%$%rin2a iai2& I)$ail bin Abba, (144H#M&a$$a, bin I)$ail bin Abba, (1433H# Abba, bin M&a$$a, bin I)$ailan+ $%$aai +%laran al-Mu’tadid  (146H# ,an Ab& al->a)i$ M&a$$a,bin Abba, an+ $%$aai +%laran al-Mu’tamid  (1488H#1 S%l%'a)b%rairna '%$%rin2aan al-Mu’tamid  'a,a 2a&n 484H b%rairla'%$%rin2aan Ban& ’Abba, ,i I)bilia1 S%.ara %)%l&r&anna Ban& ’Abba,$%n+&a)ai I)bilia )%la$a "! 2a&n (Ra+ib !! 343-356#1 %0a2&an%ra0aan Ban& ’Abba, ,i I)bilia 'a,a 2a&n 484H %*ran '%n+&a)aan%ra0aan M&rabi2&n 2%ra,a' ilaa-ilaa I)la$ ,i An,al&) )%ali+&)$%na$a2an %ra '%$%rin2aan Muluk al-Tawa’i   (Mar&ia A$a2!!38#1 Dari )&,&2 +%*+ra; ilaa I)bilia 2%rl%2a b%ra$'iran ,%n+anilaa E*r,*9a ,i 2%n+a baa+ian )%la2an An,al&)1 Manaala ,ari )&,&2'%n.a'aian ,ala$ bi,an+ %il$&an I)bilia $&n.&l )%ba+ai )%b&a 2%$'a2'alin+ $a0& ,i r*'a ,ari )%+i '%n.a'aian bi,an+ il$& '%n+%2a&an2%r&2a$a 'a,a aba, %-8 in++a M1 S%lain I)bilia an2ara ban,ar an+'alin+ $a0& ,i An,al&) 'a,a a2& i2& iala E*r,*9a ,an rana,a1 Ban,ar ini2%la $%na)ian b%rla&na '%r%$ban+an '%)a2 ,ari )%+i il$&'%n+%2a&an %2ia r*'a b%ra,a ,ala$ Za$an %la' ( Dark A!"s #   )%2%la)%la2an S%'an*l ,i,*$ina)i *l% '%ra,aban I)la$ (Ka$al !!@ "#1 a,a %ra Muluk al-Tawa’i   )%2ia' %ra0aan an+ $%$%rin2a ilaa-ilaa ,i S%'an*l $%n+a$alan ,a)ar $%$'%rl&a)an &a)a $a)in+-$a)in+ ,%n+an $%la&an '%lba+ai .ara 2an'a $%$'%,&lian .ara a'a)%ali'&n an+ ,ila&an a+ar a)ra2 $%r%a 2%r.a'ai1 Ini ,ila&an )a$aa,a ,%n+an 2i'& %la $a&'&n 2%r'a)a $%n++&naan '%,an+ ala&'&n.ara 2%r)%b&2 2i,a $%n,a2an+an a%,a %'a,a $%r%a1 Dala$ *n2%)%ra0aan Ban& ’Abba, '%n,%a2an al-Mu’tadid  (1488H# ,i I)bilia %2ia$%n%a)an &a)a '&a Barbar ,i )%la2an ,an bara2 An,al&) .&&'$%$b&2ian '%n,%a2an an+ ,i+&naan 'aai *l% &a)a Muluk al-Tawa’i  ,ala$ '%rl&a)an &a)a %ra0aan $a)in+-$a)in+ (Ra+ib !!56#1 Dala$ )&a)ana +%*-'*li2i an+ $%r&n.in+ inila lairna Ibn al-’Arabiiai2& 'a,a %ra '%$%rin2aan al-Mu’tamid  Ibn ’Abba, '%$%rin2a 2%rair%ra0aan Ban& ’Abba,1 %r)%i2aran )*)ial b&,aa $a)araa2 I)bilia an+$%$ina2i bi,an+ il$& ,an lan)a' '*li2i I)bilia an+ ,i&a)ai *l%%ra0aan Ban& ’Abba, )%r2a %,&,&an aana )%ba+ai )%*ran+ '%+aai%ra0aan 2%la $%la2ari %i,&'an Ibn al-’Arabi 'a,a aal %lairanna1
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