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causas de la baja de natalidad durante el augusto.pdf

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Roman Cursive Influence in the Text of the Georgics 313 early (weH before the time of the earliest surviving MSS and papyri), it seems reasonable to conclude that a better understand- ing of the early textual history of the Vergilian corpus (as weH as that of other Latin authors) can be obtained only by accepting the fact that cursive scripts were used in the early stages of the trans- mission of the text. Akron/Ohio Robert E. Gaebel THE LOW BIRTH-RATE IN ANCIE
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  RomanCursiveInfluence in theTextofthe  eorgics 313 early  weH beforethetime of theearliestsurviving MSS andpapyri),itseemsreasonabletoconcludethatabetterunderstanding of theearlytextualhistoryoftheVergiliancorpus  as weH as thatofotherLatinauthors)canbeobtainedonlybyacceptingthefactthatcursivescriptswereusedintheearlystages of thetransmission of thetext. Akron/Ohio Robert E Gaebel THELOWBIRTH-RATE IN ANCIENTROME:APOSSIBLECONTRIBUTINGFACTOR There is considerableevidencetoshowthatRomansocietyinthelateRepublicandearlyEmpirewasafflictedbyalowbirthrate.Augustusin 18 B.C.founditnecessarytopassthe lexIuliademaritandisordinibus inthehopeofraisingthebirth-ratebypenalizingtheunmarriedandthechildless. In 9A.D.heattemptedtosupplementthislawwiththe lexPapiaPoppaea Theveryexistence of thislegislationindicatesthattheproblemofchildlessnesswaswidespreadandlong-Iasting,aviewwhich is furthersupportedbyreferencestothissubjectinLatinliteratureI).Anumber of theorieshavebeen put forwardbyscholarstoexplainthisfact.AmongthesearethenotionthatRomansprac- 1) Augustus sattempttoraisethebirth-ratedidnotlackprecedentinRomanhistory.ValeriusMaximusteilsthestorythatthecensorsCamillusandPostumius, as early as403 B.C.,hadfinedelderlybachelorsforfailingtomarryandsirechildren  Va . Max.2.9.1)andMetellusMacedonicus,censor in 131 B.C.,madeaspeechurgingmentomarryandprocreate,whichwasread out totheSenatebyAugustus in supportofhisownlegislation Suet.Aug.89.2).HoweveritseemsunlikelythatAugustus sattemptstosolvetheproblemwereverysuccess fu . Tacitusstatesexplicitlythattheywerenot Tac.Ann.3.25)andinviewofthefactthattheAugustanlegislationwasreinforcedbyDomitianandre-enacted in thesecondandthirdcenturiesA.D.itseemsthatthelowbirth-ratecontinued.Jonesdisagreeswiththisviewandarguesthatthere was aslowbutappreciableincreaseinthebirth-ratefollowingAugustus slegislation A.H.M.Jones,Augustus[London1970],p.136).Neverthelessthere is considerableevidencefortheexistenceofmarriageswhichproducednochildrenat all or onlyonechild, as  lsdon shows a p V D Balsdon,RomanWomen[London1962]pp.194ff.).  314 A M Devine tisedcontraceptionandabortiontoavoidthebirthofunwantedchildren 2   thatmembersoftheupperclassessufferedfromaform of dysgenicleadpoisoningcausedmainlybytheuseofleadcookingvessels, wh ichrenderedmanyofthemsterile 3   andthataform of naturalselectioninfavour of infertility took place,duetothecommonpracticeamongnoblemales of tryingtomarryheiresses who werethesolechildrenoftheirfamiliesandthereforelikelytodemonstratelowfertilityintheirturn   Any or all of thesepracticesmayhavebeengenuinecontributingfactorstothelowbirth-rateinRome.Howeverit is thecontention of thispaperthatafarmoresignificantcontributingfactortothelowbirth-ratewastheRomanpractice of takingvery hot dailybaths.Modernmedicalresearchhasshownconclusivelythatexposuretoheathas adetrimental effectonmalefertility.Asearly as theend of thenineteenthcenturyitwasgenerallyrecognizedthattesteswhichremainundescended cryptorchid testes)arealmostinvariablysteriles).PianaandSavaresein 1891 showedthatwhenthescrotaltestes of ratswerepushedintotheabdomenandretainedtheresurgicallytheyatrophied 6   Theyattributedthiseffect of cryptorchidismtothehighertemperatureintheabdomen.In1923 Fuku? andMooreS)independentlyshowedthatsimilarchangescouldbeproduced by locallyheatingthetestis.   hasbeenfoundthattemperaturesabove98.6°F normalhumanbody 2)Theuseofcontraception by theRomans is discussedin K Hopkins,ContraceptionintheRomanEmpire:ComparativeStudiesinSocietyand History 8 1965),124-151and S Pomeroy,Goddesses,Whores,WivesandSlaves NewYork1975),pp.166 ff MostofthecontraceptivetechniquesusedbytheRomans such as wearinganamuletmadefromaspider shead[Pliny N H 29.85J or inducingsneezingafterintercourse[Soranus 1 61 J musthavebeensingularlyineffectual.Occlusiveagentssuch as oilandhoney,usedtoblocktheosoftheuterus,mayhavehadgreatersuccess, but itseemsunlikelythatcontraceptionplayedalargepartincausingthelowbirth-rate.Abortionwascertainlypractised, as Ovid attests Ovid,Amores2.13and 14 andwas,predictably,hazardous.   mayhavecontributedtothepopulationproblembykillingmothers as weil as foetuses. 3 S C Gilfillan,RomanCultureandDysgenicLeadPoisoning:TheMan-kindQuarterlyvol.5,no.3Oanuary-March1965),3-20.4) H M.Last,Letterto N H Baynes:JRS 1947),152-6.5) B P.SetchelI,TheMammalianTestis London,1978),p.360. 6 G.P.PianaandG.Savarese, Su alcunistudiianatomo-patologici:LaClinicaVeterinaria14 1891),50-51. 7 N Fukui,Actionof body temperature on thetesticle:Japan.Med.World3 1923),160-3. 8 C R.Mooreand H D Chase, Heat applicationandtesticulardegeneration:Anat.Rec. 26  1923),344-5.  The Low Birth-RateinAncientRome315 temperature)haveeffects of thiskindinmostmammalsandthatthehigherthetemperaturetheshortertheexposureneededtocausetesticulardamageandsubsequentlowering of fertility 9 hasalsobeenshownthatrepeatedapplications of heatproduceprogressivedamage 10  . Therecanbelittle doubt thatthebathsenjoyed by the Ro- manswerevery hot andveryfrequent.AccordingtoPlinytheEIder PI. N.H. 36.121)thecensus of bathstakenbyAgrippain 33 B.C.showedthattherewere170bathsinRomeandthis number undoubtedlyincreasedwithtime.   is commonknowledgethatRomans,even of thelowersocialdasses,wereinthehabit of takingdailybathsandsomeseemtohavebathedevenmorefrequently Petronius,Satyricon 72). Theusualroutine )forabatherwastoplayagame of ballinthe sphaeristerium to warm upbeforeenteringthe tepidarium wherehewouldsweatforawhilewithhis dothes on. He wouldthenundressinthe apodyterium andbeanointedwithoiI.Afterthishewouldsweatprofuselyinthe caldarium andevenmoreprofuselyinthe laconicum whichwasdirectlyoverthehypocaust.Thenextstepwouldbetohavewarm,tepidandfinallycoldwater poured overhirn,afterwhichhewouldbescrapedwithastrigilandsponged. He wouldendhisbathwithacoldplungeinthe frigidarium For thepurposes of thispaperthetimespentinthe caldarium andthe laconicum is themostsignificant part of thisroutine.   hasalreadybeenpointed out thattemperaturesover98.6°Fcancausetesticulardamageand,whileit is difficulttoestablishtheexacttemperatureswhichwouldhavebeenreachedintheseparts of thebaths,they would certainlyhavebeenhigherthanthis.The hot springsatBath,usedintheRomanbaths,haveanaturaltemperature of 120°F 12   whileasauna,which is probablythe dosest modernequivalenttoaRoman caldarium reachestemperatures of 200°F or higher-sufficienttodestroyall but thehardiestspermatozoa.Evidencefromancientauthorsconfirmstheimpressionthatthebaths of theearlyEmpirewereswelteringfire-boxesin wh ich 9)Ibid.10) K Bowler, The effects of repeatedtemperatureapplications to thetestis on fertilityinmalerats:   Reprod.Fertil. 14  1967),171-3.11)Thedetails of thisroutineprobablyvariedsomewhat.Carcopinogivesagoodbasicoutline of itin ]. Carcopino,DailyLifeinAncientRome  New Haven1940) p. 284..12) L Wright,CleanandDecent London1960),p.19.  316 A. M Devine theRomanswereregularlyparboiled. The mostvigorouscriticofthisinstitution is theYoungerSeneca. He speaksofthemarblelinedpools Seneca,Ep.86.6): inquasmultasudationecorporaexinanita exsaniata codd.) demittimus  intowhichwelower our bodieswhentheyhavebeenexhaustedbyabundantperspiration ).Laterinthesameletterhecontraststhemoderatetemperatureofthebathsofearlytimeswith Seneca,Ep.86.10): hane,quaenuperinuentaestsimilisineendio,adeoquidem,   eonuietuminaliquoseelereseruumuiuumlauarioporteat.Nihilmihiuideturiaminteresse,ardeatbalineumanealeat  thisrecentlyinventedheat,resemblingaconflagration,tosuchanextentindeedthataslaveconvictedforsomecriminaloffenceought now tobebathedalive.Nowadays it seemstomethatthere is nodifferencebetweena hot bathandabathonfire ).Senecawas not theonlywritertocomplainaboutthesearingheatinthebathsoftheearlyEmpire.Martialalsorefers to it Martial,Epigrams6.42)andtheEIderPlinyincludesinhisindictment of evilinfluenceswhichhaveruinedthemorals of theEmpire Pliny, N H 29.26): balineaeardentesquibuspersuasereineorporibus ci os eog ui   nemononminusualidusexiret,oboedientissimiuereejjerrentur  scaldingbathsbywhichthey[sc. doctors ]havepersuadedusthatfood is cooked  3 ) in our bodies,sothateverybodygoes out ofthemweakerandthemostsubmissivearecarriedout ).SenecaandtheEIderPlinymaybeexaggeratingslightly out ofmoralzeal, but apassagefromtheletters of theYoungerPlinyseemstocorroboratethesubstanceoftheirstatements.IndescribingthemurderofLarciusMacedo by hisslaves,Pliny points out thattheslaveswereabletopretendplausibly thoughdeceitfuIly)thathiscoIlapsehadbeencaused by theheatofhisbath Pliny,Ep.3.14).   theRomanbathswere hot enoughtocausefaintingandfatigue,theywereprobably hot enoughalsotocausechroniclowfertilityamongmales.Precisestatistics on thebirth-rateinancientRomeareimpossibletoobtainandtheproblem is furthercomplicatedbythedifficultyofdetermininghowmanypeopleremainedchildless by choice.HowevertwoexamplesofweIlknownRomans who seemtohavesufferedfromlowfertilityinspiteoftheirearnestdesireforoffspring,whileprovingnothinginisolationmay  3 This is presumablyapunon concoquere  orsometimesjust coquere , meaning  to digest .
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