Cell Theory

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  Robert Hooke ●  Described it as having a  perforated and porous surface  like honeycomb and called it cellulae   ●  Observed a thin slice of cork   from bark of an oak tree Anton Van Leeuwenhoek   ●  Named the microscopic things that he observed from pond water as animalcules   Matthias Schleiden   ●  All plants were made of cells Theodore Schwann   ●  All animals were made of cells  Rudolf Virchow   ●  All cells come from other cells through the process of cell division THE CELL THEORY 1. All living things are made out of cells. 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism (basic unit of life). 3. Cells come from the reproduction of existing cells (cell division). Cell membrane   ●  The outer boundary   that regulates the passage of materials into and out of the cell.   Cytoplasm ●  The  gel-like substance  that makes up the cell’s internal environment    Genetic region   ●  Provides instructions to make proteins, regulates activities, and enables cells to reproduce its kind BASIC CELL TYPES 1. Prokaryotic ●  cells that lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles ●  Contain ribosomes in their cytoplasm to make proteins 2. Eukaryotic   ●  Organelles allow different functions to be compartmentalized    ●   ãA membrane-bound nucleus which contains the DNA ●  Manufacturing, storage, distribution, and breakdown of materials ●  Structural support, movement, and communication between cells Cell/plasma membrane   ●  A thin barrier  that forms the boundary separating an individual cell from the external environment  ●  Controls what enters and leaves the cell (semi-permeable) Cholesterol   ●  Strengthen the cell membrane   ●  Makes the membrane less permeable Carbohydrates ●  Enabling cells to distinguish one type of cell from another Membrane proteins 1. Transport proteins  ●  Help materials to cross the membrane 2. Channel proteins ●  Forms tunnels that help cells to import or export needed materials and wastes *The plasma membranes of cells that specialize in ABSORPTION is called MICROVILLI   Cell wall ●  A rigid layer that gives protection, support, and shape to the cell  Cytoplasm ●  Fills the space between the nucleus and the cell membrane Cytosol   ●  Is the fluid portion consisting mainly of water (70-80 percent) and proteins Nucleus ●  The storehouse of genetic information  in the form of DNA inside the cell. ●  It directs all activities of the cell   ●  Stores chromatin  in a gel-like substance called the nucleoplasm   Nucleolus ●  is a condensed region of chromatin where ribosome synthesis occurs Nuclear envelope ●  The boundary of the nucleus is called the nuclear envelope.   Nuclear pores ●  Allow substances to enter and exit the nucleus Ribosomes   ●  The cellular structures who are responsible for protein synthesis . Endomembrane system   ●  It is a group of membranes and organelles in eukaryotic cells that works together to manufacture , store , distribute  and breakdown  lipids and proteins. Endoplasmic reticulum   ●  Main function is to modify proteins and synthesize lipids   Rough endoplasmic reticulum ●  Joins amino acids for proteins. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum ●  Detoxification of medications and poisons . Golgi apparatus ●  Where proteins are transported from the ER  ●  In this organelle, sorting, tagging, packaging, distribution of proteins and lipids occur Vesicles ●  Enclosing the proteins Vacuoles ●  Storage of materials needed by the cell Lysosomes ●  Containing chemicals that can break down the material in the cell. ●   Lysozyme  can defend a cell from invading bacteria and viruses. Peroxisomes   ●  Absorb nutrients that had been acquired by cells Mitochondria ●  Supply energy to the cell Chloroplasts ●  Convert solar energy to chemical energy through photosynthesis . Centrosome ●  Serves as the main microtubule-organizing center ●  Organize microtubules to form cilia and flagella Cilia   ●  Looks like little hair with much shorter length Flagella   ●  Look like a whip or a tail. Cytoskeleton   ●  Help maintain the shape of the cell   
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