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Chapter 8

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  Chapter 8| Motivation: From Concept to Application 1 J OB D ESIGN IN O RGANIZATION   Work design is an important method managers can us to enhance employee performance. When work design is addressed at the individual level, it is most commonly referred to as job design. Job Design - is defined as how an organization defines and structure jobs. It is about understanding how to design  job for others in ways that will bring out the best in them.      Properly designed jobs   can have a positive impact on the motivation performance and job satisfaction of those who perform them.      Poorly designed jobs can impair motivation,  performance and satisfaction.  Quotations: 1.   “I love my job. You couldn’t pay me enough to do what I do.”  2.   “My works feeds me. I did not know I was capable of working so hard and enjoying it so much.”  3.   “I’ve been offered work at some of the top consumer good firms, but they can’t match the excitement that surrounds my job and my unit.”  Job is designed to foster excellence of the employees and to have real and positive outcomes. The quotations provided above explains the big part of the rationale for why the organization should care about how jobs are designed.   Job Specialization -is the first widespread model of how an individual work should be designed. It describes that  job should be scientifically, broken down into small components tasks and then standardized across all workers doing those jobs. Example:  A worker who applies safety decals to a piece of equipment as that equipment moves down an assembly line is performing a specialized job.    Job specialization can help improve the efficiency of the employees, but it also promotes monotony and boredom. Monotony It refers to the lack of change on the job of an employee that makes it boring. Boredom An employee experiences a state of being weary and restless through lack of interes     Job Characteristic Model (JCM)    JCM was developed by J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham.    It describes any job in terms of five core job dimensions.    See figure 1 in the last page. Core Job Dimensions 1. Skill Variety The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities so the worker can use a number of different skills and talents. Example:  The work of water refilling station owner-operator who does refilling water, conveying  prospective clients and delivering the waters to his customers scores high on skill variety. The job of a body shop worker who sprays paint 8 hours a day scores low on this dimension. 2. Task Identity  The degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work. Example: A cabinetmaker that designs s piece of furniture, selects the woods, builds the object, and finishes it to perfection has a job that scores high on task identity. A job scoring low on this dimension is a factory lathe solely to make table legs. 3. Task Significance The degree to which a job affects the lives or work of the other people.  Chapter 8| Motivation: From Concept to Application 2 Example: The job of a nurse handling the diverse needs patients in a hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU) scores high on task significance, while the  job of janitors sweeping floors in a hospital scores low. 4. Autonomy The degree to which a job provides the worker freedom, independence and discretion in scheduling work and determining the produces in carrying it out. Example: A salesperson that schedules his or her own work each day and decides on the most effective sales approach for each customer without supervision has a highly autonomous job. A salesperson that is given a set of leads each day and is required to follow a standardized sales script with each potential customer has a job low on autonomy. 5. Feedback The degree to which carrying out work activities generates direct and clear information about the employees’ performance.   Example: A job with high feedback is assembling iPads and testing them to see whether they operate  properly. A factory worker that assembles iPads  but then routes to a quality-control inspector for testing and adjustments receives low feedback from his or her activities.   Critical Psychological States   These states are presumed to determine the extent to which characteristics of the job enhance employee responses to the task. I. Experienced meaningfulness of the work - The degree to which the individual experiences the job as generally meaningful, valuable and worthwhile. - The employees experienced meaningfulness of the work if skill variety, task identity and task significance are  present in the work of an individual. II. Experienced responsibility for work outcomes - The degree to which individuals feel  personally accountable ad responsible for the results of their work. - The employees experienced responsibility for work outcomes if autonomy is present to the job of an employee. III. Knowledge of results -The degree to which individuals continuously understand how effectively they are performing the job. -In order for the employees to arrive on this psychological state, feedback must be  present on his or her job.   Implementing Concepts of JCM I.   Combining tasks  puts fractionalized tasks    back together to form a new and larger module work.   II.   Forming Natural Work Units makes an employee’s tasks create identifiable and meaningful whole.   III.   Establishing Client Relationships increases the direct relationships between workers and their clients (clients can be internal as well as outside the organization). IV.   Expanding Job Vertically gives employees responsibilities and control formerly reserved for management. V.   Opening Feedback Channels lets employees know how well they are doing and whether their performance is  Chapter 8| Motivation: From Concept to Application 3 improving, deteriorating, or remaining constant.    See figure 2 on the last page.    JCM proposes that individuals obtain internal rewards when they learn (knowledge of results) that they personally (experienced responsibility) have performed well on task that they care about (experienced meaningfulness).    The more these three psychological states are  present, the greater will be employee’s motivation, performance and satisfaction and lower their absenteeism and likelihood of leaving.    To be high on motivating potential, jobs must  be high on at least one of the 3 factors that lead to experienced meaningfulness and high on both autonomy and feedback.    Individuals with high growth need are more likely to experience the critical psychological states when their jobs are enriched  –   and respond to them more positively  –   than are their counterparts with low growth need.    People with strong needs for personal growth and development will be especially motivated  by the 5 core job characteristics/dimensions and vice versa. Alternatives for Job Specialization Job Rotation (Cross-training)    Involves systematically shifting workers from one job to another to sustain their motivation and interest. Under specialization, each task is  broken down into small parts. Example: Assembling fine writing pens might involve four discrete steps: 1)   Testing ink cartridge 2)   Inserting the cartridge into the barrel of the pen 3)   Screwing the cap onto the barrel 4)   Inserting the assembled pen into the  box One worker might perform step one, another step two and so forth. When job rotation is introduced, the task themselves stay the same. However, the workers who perform them are systematically rotated across the various tasks. Example: Jones, starts out with task 1 (testing ink cartridges). On regular basis  –   perhaps weekly or monthly  –   he is systematically rotated to task 2, to task 3, to task 4, and to task 1. Angel, who starts out on task 2 (inserting the cartridges into the  barrel of the pen) rotates ahead of jones to task 3, 4, 1, and back to 2. Strengths: o   It reduces boredom, increases motivation, and helps employees better understand how their work contributes to the organization. o   An indirect benefit is that employees with a wider range of skills give management more flexibility in scheduling work, adapting changes, and filling vacancies. Weaknesses: o    Narrowly defined, routine jobs. If a rotation takes workers through the same old jobs, workers simply experience several routine and boring jobs instead of one.   o   Rotation may also decrease efficiency; it clearly sacrifices the proficiency and expertise that grow from specialization. o   Also, training expense of the organization increases. o   Creates disruption when members of the work group have to adjust to the new employee. o   Supervisors may also have to spend more time answering questions and monitoring the work of recently rotated employees.  Chapter 8| Motivation: From Concept to Application 4 Job Enlargement (Horizontal Job Loading)    Expanding a worker’s job to include tasks previously performed by the other workers.    The logic behind this change is that the increased number of tasks in each job reduces monotony and boredom. Example: If the job enlargement were introduced at the factory of fine writing pens, the 4 tasks note above might be combined into two “larger” ones.      One set of workers might test cartridges and then insert them into the barrels ( Old step 1 & 2 )      Another set of workers might then attach caps to the barrels and put the pens into the boxes ( Old step 3 & 4 )  Weaknesses: o   If the entire production sequence consider consisted of simple, easy-to-master tasks, merely doing more of them did not significantly change the worker’s job.   Example, task of putting two bolts on a  pi ece of machinery was “enlarged” to  putting on three and connecting two wires, for example, the monotony of the srcinal  job essentially remained. Job Enrichment (Vertical Job Loading)    Relies not only adding more tasks to a job, as in horizontal loading, but also giving the employee more control over those tasks.  Example: This technique was used in janitorial jobs. The company had given janitors more control over their schedules and let them sequence their own cleaning jobs and purchase their own supplies. F LEXIBLE W ORK A RRANGEMENTS Beyond the actual redesigning of jobs and the use of employee involvement, many organizations today are experimenting with a variety of flexible work arrangements. These arrangements are generally intended to enhance employee motivation and performance by giving workers more flexibility about how and when they work. Compressed Work Schedule    An employee following this kind of work schedule works for a full forty-hour week in fewer than the traditional five days.      More typically, this schedule involves working ten hours a day for four days, leaving an extra day off.    Another alternative is for employees to work slightly less than ten hours a day but to complete the forty hours by lunch time on Friday. Weaknesses: o   Everyone in the organization is off at the same time, the firm may have no one on duty to handle problems or deal with outsiders on the day off. o   If the company staggers day off across the workforce, people who don’t get the more desirable day offs (Monday and Friday) may be jealous or resentful. o   When employees put in too much time in a single day, they tend to get tired and  perform at a lower level later in the day. A popular schedule some organizations are  beginning to use is called a “nine - eighty” schedule . Nine-eighty Schedule  - An employee works a traditional schedule one week and a compressed schedule the next, getting every other Friday off. That is, they work eighty hours (equivalent of two weeks of full-time work) in nine days. By alternating the regular and compressed schedules across half of its workforce, the organization is staffed at all times but still gives
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