Education

Cognitive psychology report

Description
1. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas 2. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts,…
Categories
Published
of 78
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Transcript
  • 1. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas
  • 2. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas 1. How are representations of words and symbols organized in the mind? 2. How do we represent other forms of knowledge in the mind? 3. How does declarative knowledge interact with procedural knowledge? INTRODUCTION
  • 3. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE
  • 4. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE -CONCEPT – the fundamental unit of symbolic knowledge (knowledge of correspondence between symbols and their meaning for example, that symbol “3” means three), an idea about something that provides a means of understanding the world. -CATEGORY- is a group of items into which different objects or concepts can be placed that belong together because they share some common features, or because they are similar to a certain prototype.
  • 5. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories Concepts and categories can be divided in various ways: NATURAL CATEGORIES ARTIFACT CATEGORIES are groupings that occur naturally in the world like birds or tree. are groupings that are designed or invented by humans to serve particular purposes or functions. Natural and Artifact Categories are relatively stable and people tend to agree on criteria for membership.
  • 6. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories On the contrary.. -CONCEPTS- are not always stable but can change. They are described not in words but rather in phrases. they also appear to have a basic level (sometimes termed as a natural level) of specificity, a level within a hierarchy that is preferred to other levels.
  • 7. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 8. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories In general, the basic level is neither the most abstract nor the most specific. This basic level can be manipulated by context or expertise.
  • 9. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 10. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories The basic level is the one that most people find to be maximally distinctive. By means of training, the basic level can be shifted to a more subordinate level. For example, the more a person learns about cars, the more he or she is likely to make elaborate distinction among cars. Research suggests that the difference between experts and novices are not due to qualitative mechanisms but rather quantitative differences in processing efficacy.
  • 11. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories So, how do we decide what objects to put into a category?
  • 12. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories -FEATURE-BASED CATEGORIES -PROTOTYPE THEORY -THEORY BASED VIEW OF CATEGORIZATION -SEMANTIC-NETWORK MODELS -SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATIONS
  • 13. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories FEATURE-BASED CATEGORIES: A DEFINING VIEW the classic view of categories disassembles a concept into a set of featural components. All those features are then necessary (and sufficient) to define the category. This means that each feature is an essential element of the category. Together, the features uniquely define the category; they are defining features. For a thing to be an X, it must have that feature. Otherwise it is not an “X”.
  • 14. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories BACHELOR MALE UNMARRIE D ADULT
  • 15. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories WIFE FEMALE MARRIED ADULT
  • 16. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories The Problem: 1. Some categories do not readily lend themselves to featural analysis. 2. A violation of those defining features does not seem to change the category we use to define them.
  • 17. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 18. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 19. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 20. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories In sum, the feature-based theory has some attractive features, but it does not give a complete account of categories.
  • 21. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories PROTOTYPE THEORY: A CHARACTERISTIC VIEW grouping things together not by their defining features rather by their similarity to an averaged model of the category. PROTOTYPE is an abstract average of all the objects the category we have encountered before CHARACTERISTIC FEATURE describe (characterize or typify) prototype but are not necessary for it.
  • 22. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 23. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories So what exactly is a characteristic feature? whereas a defining feature is shared by every single object in a category, a characteristic feature need not to be Instead, many or most instances possess each character feature..
  • 24. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories Psychologists differentiate two kinds of categories: Classical concepts and Fuzzy Concepts. CLASSICAL CONCEPTS FUZZY CONCEPTS -Can be readily defined through defining features -May be built on defining features -Cannot be so easily defined -Built around prototypes
  • 25. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories Real-World Examples: Using Exemplars Some Psychologists suggests that instead of using a single abstract prototype for categorizing a concept, we use multiple, specific exemplars. EXEMPLARS are typical representatives of a category In particular, categories are set up by creating a rule and then by storing examples as exemplars. Objects are then compared to the exemplars to decide whether or not they belong in the category the exemplars represent.
  • 26. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories A SYNTHESIS: COMBINING FEATURE-BASED and PROTOTYPE THEORIIES A full theory of categorization can combine both defining and characteristic features, so that each category has both prototype and a CORE. CORE refers to the defining features something must have to be considered an example of category. The prototype encompasses the characteristic features that tend to be typical of an example but that are not necessary for being considered as an example. The core requires that someone labeled as a robber be a person who takes things from others without permission. The prototype, however, tends to identify particular people as more likely to be robbers.
  • 27. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories “ROBBER ”
  • 28. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 29. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 30. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories A departure from feature-based, prototype-based, and exemplar-based views of meaning is a THEORY BASED VIEW of meaning also sometimes called an EXPLANATION-BASED VIEW.
  • 31. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories HOW DO PEOPLE USE THEIR THEORIES FOR CATEGORIZATION?
  • 32. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories A THEORY BASED VIEW OF MEANING hold that people understand and categorize concepts in terms of implicit theories, or general ideas they have regarding those concepts. For example, what makes a GOOD SPORT?
  • 33. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories In the PROTOTYPE VIEW, you would try to find characteristic features of a good sport. In the COMPONENTIAL VIEW, you would try to isolate features of a good sport. In the EXAMPLAR VIEW, you might try to find some good examples you have known in your life.
  • 34. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories In the theory-based view, you would use your experience to construct an explanation for what makes someone a good sport.
  • 35. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories SO what does it means to be a GOOD SPORT in a theory-based view? A good sport is someone who, when he or she wins, is gracious in victory and dos not mock losers or otherwise make them feel bad about losing. It is also someone who, when he or she loses, loses graciously and does not blame the winner, the referee, or find excuses. Rather, he or she takes the defeat in stride, congratulates the winner, and then moves on.
  • 36. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories FINDING THE “ESSENCE” OF THINGS
  • 37. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 38. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories SEMANTIC-NETWORK MODELS Semantic Network Models suggests that knowledge is represented in our minds in the form of concepts that are connected with each other in a web-like form
  • 39. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories Collins and Quillan’s Network Models Knowledge is represented in terms of hierarchal semantic network. A SEMANTIC NETWORK is a web of elements of meaning (nodes) that are connected with each other through links.
  • 40. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories ORGANIZED KNOWLEDGE representation takes the form of a hierarchal tree diagram. The elements are called nodes they are typically concepts. The connections between the nodes are labeled relationships. They may indicate category membership, attributes, or some other semantic relationship. Thus a network provides a means of organizing concepts.
  • 41. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories INHERITAN CE This concept implies that lower-level items inherit the properties of higher- level items. Whatever was known about items at higher levels in a hierarchy was applied to all items at lower levels in the hierarchy
  • 42. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories
  • 43. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC FEATURES Knowledge is organized based on a comparison of semantic features, rather than on a strict hierarchy of concepts
  • 44. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE Concepts and Categories SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATIONS SCHEMA SCRIPT
  • 45. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE
  • 46. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION- acquired to practicing the implementation of a procedure
  • 47. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE Psychologists have developed a variety of models for how procedural information is processed. Each of the models involves: SERIAL PROCESSING of information in which information handled through a linear sequence of operations, one operation at a time One way in which computer can represent and organize procedural knowledge is in the form of set of rules governing a PRODUCTION which includes the generation and output of procedure
  • 48. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE In the same way computer simulation of production follow production rules, people may use the same form of organizing knowledge of very close to it this production rules is the: “if-then” rules The “if” clause includes a set of conditions that must be met to implement the “then’ clause. The “then” clause is an action or a series of actions that are a response to “if” clause.
  • 49. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE When the rules are described precisely and all the relevant conditions and actions are noted, a huge number of rules are required to perform even a very simple task. These rules are organized into a structure of ROUTINES SUBROUTINES instructions regarding procedures for implementing a task. Instructions for implementing a subtask within a larger task governed by a routine Many of these routines and subroutines are ITERATIVE they are repeated many times during the performance of a task
  • 50. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ORGANIZATION OF PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE
  • 51. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas NONDECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE knowledge traditionally has been has been described as either declarative or procedural. One can expand the traditional distinction between declarative and procedural knowledge to suggest that NONDECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE may encompass a broader range of mental representations than just procedural knowledge. We mentally represent the following forms of non declarative knowledge: PERCEPTAL, MOTOR, AND COGNITIVE SKILLS (procedural knowledge) SIMPLE ASSOCIATIVE KNOWLEDGE (classical and operant conditioning) SIMPLE NON-ASSOCIATIVE KNOWLEDGE (habituation and sensitization) PRIMING
  • 52. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas THE P 100.00 CHALLENGE
  • 53. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas APRIL AUGUST DECEMBER FEBRUARY JANUARY JULY JUNE MARCH MAY NOVEMBER OCTOBER SEPTEMBER
  • 54. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas The ANAGRAM GAME ZAZIP GASPETHIT POCH YUSE OWCH MINE ILCHI ACOT TECKAJ STEV ATEREW OLACK ZELBAR ACOT
  • 55. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas The preceding example illustrate situations in which an item may prime another item that somehow related in meaning. TWO TYPES OF PRIMING SEMANTIC PRIMING REPITITION PRIMING We are primed a meaningful context or by meaningful information. Such information typically is a word or cue that meaningfully related to the target that is used. A prior exposure to a word or other stimulus primes a subsequent retrieval of the information
  • 56. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas INTEGRATIVE MODELS FOR REPRESENTING DECLARATIVE AND NONDECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE
  • 57. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas ADAPTIVE CONTROL of THOUGHT- RATIONAL (ACT-R) PARALLEL PROCESSING: THE CONNECTIONIST MODEL
  • 58. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas COMBINING REPRESENTATIONS: ACT-R (ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF THOUGHT- RATIONAL) PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE represented in the form of production systems represented in the form of propositional networks Proposition the smallest unit of knowledge that can be judged to either true or false
  • 59. REPRESENTATION and ORGANIZATION of KNOWLEDGE in MEMORY: Concepts, Categories, Networks and Schemas In ACT-R, networks include images of objects and corresponding spatial configurations and relationships. They also include TEMPORAL INFORMATION, such as relationships involvin
  • Attention

    Aug 13, 2017

    Lasombra Br

    Aug 13, 2017
    We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks
    SAVE OUR EARTH

    We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

    More details...

    Sign Now!

    We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

    x