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Ending Open Defecation in India: Insights on Implementation and Behavior Change for Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

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This report takes a holistic approach to identify the drivers of persistent open defecation (OD)i in India, considering how social, behavioral, cultural, economic, geographic, and political factors impact the habit.
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    "#$% &   Aliquam tincidunt erat ac turpis. Cras purus nisi, dapibus in hendrerit non. "#$% '   Ending Open Defecation in India:   Insights on Implementation and Behavior Change for Swachh Bharat Abhiyan      Kathryn Alexander, Cooper Allton, Colin Felsman, Minsun Hahn, Tishina Okegbe, Dustin Palmer, Jeremy Taglieri, Mike Thibert  Advised by Professor Jeffrey Hammer  January 2016 Graduate Policy  Workshop Report    !!    !!! 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'&0?501)%- $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 22 9$3$# /IBEEGCDGH MJ 6LPXGN .GH!DC BCF 7GBHLPGKGCM $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 29 9$3$3 6=0 6LPXGN!CD; ,PJX!H!JCH4 ,PBQM!QGH4 BCF /JCMPBF!QM!JCH $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 2@ A/ 4("%++($)!,2%$- /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// =B 4(3(4($"(- ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// @9    !X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report is the product of research and data analysis conducted by a group of eight Masters candidates at Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs (WWS) between August and December 2015. We are indebted to the WWS Graduate Program Office for its financial, logistic, and moral support throughout this exercise. We wish to thank our clients, Dean Spears and Diane Coffey of the Research Institute for Compassionate Economics (r.i.c.e), for their keen insights and encouragement to critically engage a policy challenge that they have studied extensively. Our analysis is much stronger thanks to Nikhil Srivastav, r.i.c.e.’s Research and Policy Manager, who led us on visits to several communities in Uttar Pradesh and enthusiastically shared his wisdom. We also wish to thank the many institutions, policymakers, and researchers that patiently met with our team and responded to our inquiries. We were fortunate to travel to India, learning more about the topic from representatives at Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program, NITI Aayog, the Accountability Initiative, WaterAid, the Centre for Policy Research (CPR), the International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie) in New Delhi; the Ministry of Rural Development in Lucknow; and Rajiv Gandhi Mahila Vikas Pariyojana (RGMVP) in Rae Bareli. Finally, we are grateful to Professor Jeffrey Hammer for his guidance, tough questions, and refreshingly sarcastic sense of humor.    X LIST OF ACRONYMS ANM Auxiliary Nurse Midwife  APL  Above the Poverty Line ASHA   Accredited Social Health Activist AWW  Anganwadi   Worker BPL Below the Poverty Line BCC  Behavior Change Communication CDC  Centers for Disease Control CHW  Community Health Worker CLTS  Community-Led Total Sanitation CRSP Central Rural Sanitation Program DFID  UK Department for International Development DHS  Demographic and Health Survey DTF  District Task Forces GOI  Government of India IEC  Information, Education and Communication IHHL Individual Household Latrines IPC  Interpersonal Communication MPHW  Multipurpose Health Worker NBA   Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan    NHM  National Health Mission NGP   Nirmal Gram Puraskar    NGO  Non-governmental Organization NSSO  National Statistical Sampling Office OBC Other Backward Caste OD  Open Defecation ODF Open Defecation-Free OHC  Other High Caste PLUM  Passive Latrine Use Monitor PPP Purchasing Power Parity SBA   Swachh Bharat Abhiyan   ( Swachh Bharat   Mission) SBAG   Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Gramin (Rural) SBAU   Swachh Bharat Abhiyan   Urban SC Scheduled Caste SD   Scwachhata Doot SMNet  Social Mobilization Network SQUAT  Sanitation Quality, Use, Access, & Trends survey ST Scheduled Tribe TSC  Total Sanitation Campaign USAID United States Agency for International Development VHF Village Health Funds VWSC  Village Water and Sanitation Committees VHSNC Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committees WHO  World Health Organization   INDIAN NUMBERING SYSTEM Lakh 100,000 Crore   10,000,000
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