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Essay Structure- Writing Introductory Paragraphs.pdf

Essay Structure- Writing Introductory Paragraphs.pdf
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  The Structure of an Essay in English. Second Year LMD- Groups 5 & 6 (2016/2017) Please, send your comments and questions to: Or https://univ- Thank you      1 University Blida 2 Faculty of Arts and Languages _ Department of English Academic Year: 2016/2017 Module: Reading and Writing Teacher: Ms. BEN BELLAL Level: Second Year LMD Groups: 5 & 6  By the end of the lesson, learners should be able to:    Understand the structure of a coherent essay in English.    Write a strong introduction for an essay using different patterns to grab the reader’s interest. 1.   Definition of Essay. 2.   The Difference between an Essay and a Paragraph. 3.   The Parts of Essay. 3.1.   The Introductory Paragraph. 3.1.1.   Tasks of the Introductory Paragraph. 3.1.2.   How to Write a Proper Introduction. 1.   Definition of Essay: An essay is a group of paragraphs written about a single topic and a central main idea. It must have a least two paragraphs, but a five-paragraph essay is a common length for academic writing. 2.   The Difference between an Essay and a Paragraph: An essay is simply a paper composed of several paragraphs, rather than one paragraph. In an essay, subjects can and should be treated more fully than they would be in a single-paragraph paper. The main idea or point developed in an essay is called the thesis statement or thesis sentence (rather than, as in a paragraph, the topic sentence ).   The thesis statement  The Structure of an Essay in English. Second Year LMD- Groups 5 & 6 (2016/2017) Please, send your comments and questions to: Or https://univ- Thank you      2 appears in the introductory paragraph, and it is then   developed in the supporting paragraphs that follow. A short concluding   paragraph closes the essay. The overall design or form of the essay is similar to the paragraph. Both the essay and the paragraph develop a main idea with supporting ideas and end the writing with a conclusion. However, the essay uses paragraphs to support the main idea and conclude the writing whereas the paragraph uses sentences. Moreover, the essay presents the main idea or thesis statement at the end of the first paragraph, which is called the introduction.  The support for the main idea comes in paragraphs in the body of the essay. Finally, the essay is summed up in the last paragraph, called the conclusion. Paragraph Structure Essay Topic sentence Main Idea  Thesis (One sentence) (1-2 sentences at the end of The introduction) Supporting sentences Body  supporting paragraphs Concluding sentence Conclusion  Concluding paragraph The Form of an Essay The following diagram shows the form of an essay. Introductory paragraph The introduction  attracts the reader’s interest.  The  thesis statement (or  thesis sentence ) states the main idea advanced in the paper. The  plan of development  is a list of points that support the thesis. The points are presented in the order in which they will be developed in the paper. The  topic sentence advances the first supporting point for the thesis, and the  specific evidence in the rest of the paragraph develops that first point. Introduction Thesis statement Plan of development Points 1,2,3 First supporting paragraph Topic sentence (point 1) Specific evidence  The Structure of an Essay in English. Second Year LMD- Groups 5 & 6 (2016/2017) Please, send your comments and questions to: Or https://univ- Thank you      3 The  topic sentence advances the second supporting point for the thesis, and the  specific evidence in the rest of the paragraph develops that second point. The  topic sentence advances the third supporting point for the thesis, and the  specific evidence in the rest of the paragraph develops that third point. A  summary  is a brief restatement of the thesis and its main points. A  conclusion  is a final thought or two stemming from the subject of the paper. Second supporting paragraph Topic sentence (point 2) Specific evidence Third supporting paragraph Topic sentence (point 3) Specific evidence Concluding paragraph Summary, conclusion or both 3.   The Parts of Essay: An essay introduction  stimulates the reader's interest and tells what the essay is about. The last sentence  of an introduction is the thesis statement . Like the topic sentence of a paragraph, a thesis statement names the specific topic of the essay. The body  consists of one or more paragraphs . Each paragraph develops a subdivision of the topic. The conclusion , like the concluding sentence in a paragraph, is a summary or review of the main points discussed in the body. An essay has unity and coherence,  just as a paragraph does. Transition signals link the paragraphs into a cohesive whole. As you read the following model essay, study its organization . Notice the transition signals at the beginning of the three body paragraphs; they tell you which pattern of organization this essay uses. A Model Essay: In the following essay, the writer wrote an essay on the newspaper by expanding ideas in his paragraph about the importance of the newspaper. He used the same main idea in his essay that he used in his paragraph, and he chose as body paragraphs the three areas from his paragraph that seem the most important kinds of information that the newspaper provides. He was then able to give much more specific detail about these kinds of information than he was in the one paragraph he wrote about the newspaper. Read his paragraph, and then see how he expanded it into the essay that follows.  The Structure of an Essay in English. Second Year LMD- Groups 5 & 6 (2016/2017) Please, send your comments and questions to: Or https://univ- Thank you      4 The paragraph: Topic Sentence (Main Idea) Supporting Ideas: News Background info Supporting Ideas: Connection to Community Conclusion   The daily newspaper provides a valuable source of information.  As everyone knows, a town’s daily paper reports the news from around the world. Readers gain knowledge of world affairs by reading about wars starting and stopping, the national economy, and tragedies that befall people every day like auto accidents and home fires. Readers also acquire background information that is needed to be an informed citizen such as the workings of Congress and the geography of places all around the world. For instance, when the   Pope visited Cuba, Americans learned about the history and geography of the   island. Most importantly, the newspaper connects us to our community by   publishing important announcements like births, deaths, weddings and the   events occurring in town like fairs and government meetings. Reading the   newspaper helps us develop our intelligence as citizens by providing us with   important information about our world. The Essay: Introduction Thesis statement (Main idea)   Our Daily Tutor Around six o’clock in the morning, a loud thump can be heard at many front doors. For millions of Americans, it is one of the most cherished sounds of the day, for it heralds the arrival of the daily newspaper. Some of us enjoy the ritual of reading the paper as we sip our coffee while others take the paper to work and read it along the way. A few even have the patience to wait until they come home from work at the end of the day. Of course, not every American reads the paper every day, but most of us do spend the twenty-five cents to one dollar when some important event occurs. In fact, newspaper readership has been falling steadily for many years. Many people avoid the news because they find it depressing. However, what all Americans should realize is that citizens of a democracy need to be informed in order to make intelligent choices at the ballot box and to participate in the public debates that help shape our country’s course. The daily newspaper provides a valuable source of information. Not only does it report the news, but it provides valuable background information that helps us understand how our world works, and it connects us to our community and culture. Reading the daily news makes us better citizens by informing us about what is happening in the world around us. First, the international news alerts us to developments around the world that may have profound consequences. For example, when another country tests a nuclear weapon or a region erupts in violence, the news may not be pleasant, but our understanding is crucial because such events affect all of us and perhaps  The Structure of an Essay in English. Second Year LMD- Groups 5 & 6 (2016/2017) Please, send your comments and questions to: Or https://univ- Thank you      5 Supporting paragraph 1 (The News) Supporting paragraph 2 (Background information) Supporting paragraph 3 (Connection to Community) Conclusion even the future of the planet. In addition, our awareness of current events can get us involved in causes such as stopping the spread of nuclear weapons or righting the wrongs that create regional hatreds. Second, the national news keeps us in touch with events closer to home. We learn of political developments in Washington that may change the way we live, and we make judgm ents about our leaders’ actions that will influence the way we vote in the next election. Last but not least, the state and local news keeps us in touch with our regional politicians and with issues like economic development that affect our area. All this information goes into our personal data bank and informs our voice in the great chorus of American democracy. Almost as important as the news is the background information the newspaper supplies in order to give the news an understandable context. We are shown detailed maps of regions that are experiencing a conflict or natural disaster, and we are given the historical background to news events like the fighting in the Middle East. When the El Niño weather system emerged, newspapers ran detailed accounts of the weather system’s causes, effects, and possible future. In addition, the workings of government institutions like Congress and the Supreme Court are regularly explained. New scientific developments like vaccines for AIDS and the cloning of animals are also explained in language all of us can understand. The newspaper gives us not only the information but also the understanding we need to make sense of developments in our world. Most importantly, the newspaper offers us a vivid connection to our community. By reading the paper, we learn of important civic meetings that offer us the opportunity to get involved on the local level to help improve our neighborhoods. Moreover, our local newspaper helps give our town an identity and connects us to our neighbors. We keep abreast of the activities of local clubs and teams, and we learn of births, marriages, and deaths in our town. We read letters to the editor that tell us what our neighbors think of issues big and small, and we also participate in the pride of ownership when we read of local residents who win awards or gain recognition for outstanding accomplishments. After reading the paper over breakfast, we walk out the door feeling more engaged in our community. Our world is becoming more complex each day, and it is often a struggle to make sense of such rapidly changing times. Luckily, we have an ally in the newspaper that is delivered to us every morning. The daily newspaper deserves our time and attention, for it brings us the information we need to better understand our world and to be engaged citizens. Armed with knowledge of current affairs, the background information to make sense of the affairs, and appreciation for our community, we are better equipped to participate as responsible citizens in a democratic nation.
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