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Generalization of phytoepuration in Saharan habitat

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Generalization of phytoepuration in Saharan habitat
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  Generalization of phytoepuration in Saharan habitat    GENERALIZATION OF PHYTOEPURATION OF WATER IN THE SAHARIAN HABITAT CHAPTER I: GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1. Choice of theme Thisistoinitiate,enhance,andpromotesustainablewatermanagementinitsvariousforms (rain,waste,underground...)inthedevelopmentoftheplotintheterritoryoftheSaoura (southwestofAlgeria),passingbytheiblock,thedistrictandtheagglomeration,forthe benefitofallconcerned,students,architects,engineers,electedofficials,technicians, builders,promoters,owners,associations,wechosethistheme,inresponsetoaburning news characterized by: 1-Themultiplicationofwatersupplyproblemsfortheinhabitants,when shortagesareacute,especiallyinourcitieswithadesertclimate,wheredrought is recurrent. The lack of water in a heat wave then pushes the desperate riot. 2-Suddenclimaticchanges,wherefloodsarechronic;whenuncontrolledrunoff  fromtorrentialrains,inalmostcompletelyimperviousurbanareas,becomes flooding; and cause disastrous damage in their passage. 3-Pollutionofwastewaterdischargedintowadis,andriverswithoutany treatment with its proven health risks, and its spectrum of epidemics. Inourdrought-strickenareas,humannegligenceaddstoitthepollutionofthelittleavailable water. However,thereareeconomicandecologicaltechniquesofrainwaterrecoveryandreuse, andwastewatertreatmentandpurification,whichareperfectlyapplicableinourSaharan context, and have proven themselves around the world for decades, and applied in Europe. Itisalsothealternativesystemsofrainwatermanagementsuchas,grassedditches,draining trenches,absorptionwells,recoverybasins,tankstructurepavements,greenroofs,and cisterns. Thesearealternativephyto-purificationorgarden-filteringtechniquesforthepurificationof  wastewater,consistingofliquid-tightpondsfilledwithpebblesandplantedwithreeds (phragmites);ofwhichsuccessfulpilotexperimentshavebeencarriedout,notablyin Laghouat-Ouargla since 2007. Thisworkaimsattheirpresentation,forapracticalgeneralizationintheterritoryofthe Saoura(southwestofAlgeria),inparticularthroughawidenedawarenessofthevarious actors, and a plea for an upgrade of the regulations. 2. Issues and problems of storm water and wastewater management BEN AMARA ELHABIB benamaraelhabib08@gmail.comPage 1    Generalization of phytoepuration in Saharan habitat    Withoutwaterthereisnolife,necessaryforalllivingbeings,climateregulation,ecosystem maintenance, agriculture, industry, and energy production. Urbanizationandtheresultingreworking:Thecreationofroads,andhousingestatesand equipment, lead to the waterproofing of soils and strongly modify the natural cycle of water. Theconsequencesarenumerousandsignificant,inparticular,floodsanddegradationofthe water quality of the receiving environments (rivers, groundwater ...) Waterresourcesareincreasinglybeingexploitedaroundtheterritory,oftenbeyondnatural rechargecapacities,andthequalityofthisvitalresourceisoftencompromisedbyurban, agriculturalandindustrialwastewaterdischargesintotheenvironment.Domesticsewage contaminatesgroundwater,pollutestheairandpromotesthemultiplicationofmosquitoes, vectors of diseases. IntheSaharanenvironment,sewageispouredintothewadisthatpassthroughthepalm groves,whichcontributestothecompletionofitspalmtreesthatthedesertmanhas plantedandmaintainedforcenturies.Theoasesareinagony,theirecosystemisbroken becauseofthedevelopmentsmadefordecades.Qualifiedasmodern,theyneglectthe treatment of wastewater. Havingbrokenwiththelivingtraditionsinksours,wasterecoveryandreuse,thenew villages,withtheoptionof“thewholeinthesewer”towardstherejectioninthewadi withoutanytreatment,pollutethegroundsbeforetheaquifersbythedomesticeffluents: Resultinafewdecades,centuriesoflaborandlaboriouslabourhavebeencompleted, sacrificedonthealtarofunmaintainedmodernism,withincompleteandinadequate imported solutions. And latent health risks for humans. Rainwater:inallcases,donotrecoverandmixwithsewage.Theconsequenceofwater pollutionisthecontaminationofallecosystems,thedegradationofrivers,andunderground freshwater reserves, and the loss of biodiversity. Water pollution is a major cause of death worldwide. (Typhoid, Cholera, Dysentery, ...). People'sdiseaserisksleadtothelossofsocialwell-being.Waterpollution,palmgrovesand rivers push tourism away. Thechallengeforthecomingyears,therefore,isthemanagementofwaterincities,givenits scarcity in the Saharan environment, and its pollution at discharge. TheagglomerationofBechar,whoseurbanizationbeganasaresultofcolonizationatthe beginningofthelastcentury,developedatindependence,attractingaruralpopulationin searchofbetterlivingconditions.Thismigrationtothebigcityisaccompaniedbyan extensiontomultipledysfunctions,particularlyinperi-urbanareas:informalhousing, insecurity, poverty and environmental degradation. BEN AMARA ELHABIB benamaraelhabib08@gmail.comPage 2    Generalization of phytoepuration in Saharan habitat    Withtheurbangrowthgalloping,thecityismoreandmorefacedwiththerisks:drought, flood and pollution. Theissueoffloodsisbecomingamajorissueintermsofpublicsafety,particularlybecause ofthefutureimpactsofglobalwarming,whichwillonlyaccentuateextremeevents,more drought on one side, and more floods on another. Theincreasingurbanizationandthedensificationofthehabitat,haveledtoanincreasing waterproofingofthegroundsbythecoatingsofthegrounds,therainwaterisnolonger absorbedbytheland,itflows,andflowsthroughsewagesystemsthatarenotcalibratedfor suchquantities.Asituationaggravatedbytherecurrenceofrainepisodesincreasingly violent.Sincethesesewagesystemscannotabsorbasmuchwater,theyoverflowandcause flooding. TheimplementationoftheUrbanismPlansconcretizedamongotherthings,bythe operationsofsubdivisions,posesenormousconstraintsofviabilisation(roads,sewageand rainwater,etc.,etc.)whichaccentuatetheseriouspollutionproblems.oftheenvironment and water scarcity due to the following phenomena: -Floodingofurbanland,stagnationofrainwateronroadsandinparticularindepressions, chronicdroughtanddisturbancesinthedrinkingwatersupply,pollutionofwadisandrivers, andgroundwater,healthrisks,thedelayintheimplementationofsanitationsystems,dueto the crisis, in the housing developments launched in recent years. Howtomanageinaneconomicalandecologicalwaywater,whetherrainorwaste,in urbandevelopmentandhousingprojects,especiallyhousingdevelopmentslaunchedin recent years, whose viabilisation knows a deficit due to lack of financial means? - Thedroughtthenthefloodsandthepollutionsoftheselastyearsunderlinealltheactuality oftheproblematicofthewatermanagement(cfthearticlesofpressofJuly,August, September,whichcovered,riotsrelatedtowatershortages,waterpollution,risksofcholera in the center of the country, and flood damage in several cities). Howtoreducetheriskofflooding,anunavoidablenaturalphenomenonthatcanbe mitigatedbysimpletechnicalsolutionsandinexpensive,likecitiesindeveloped  countries? Theserisksduetofailuresinwatermanagement,resultindisruptionstoitsnaturalcycle. Deficienciesinthedifferentsectors,producedbymultipleactorsexpectedtointervenein theplanningprocess,arethedirectcauses.Thecompartmentalization,thelackof  consultation,thedelayintheapprehensionoftheproblems,thefinancialcrisis,andthelack ofrigorofcertainactorsmakethatoneisnotabletobecomeawareofthedangerofthe situationandtheurgentneedtofindappropriatesolutionsbasedontheexperiencesof  other richer countries and better able to meet the challenges of urbanization. BEN AMARA ELHABIB benamaraelhabib08@gmail.comPage 3    Generalization of phytoepuration in Saharan habitat    WepraytoGodtogivethiswater,andwebuildcitieswithoutthiswaterbeingrecovered. Whyotherrichercountriesaredoingit,andwearemissingtheopportunitytotake advantage of that blessing and continue to dump it into the sewers. Howcanwerecoverandenjoythebluegold,therainwater,thecovetedwealththatisso rarewiththedroughtintheregionthreatenedbydesertificationandreuseitin agriculture, watering, washing toilets? Inthecontextofdrought,scarcity,andstrongpressureonwaterresources,treatmentand reuseofrainwaterandwastewaterisaresponsetoaneverincreasingdemandthatfitsinto a development vision sustainable. Aglobalanalysisofwaterproblemsisnecessarytoaddressalltheissuesofitsmanagement and its availability for future generations in quantity and quality. Publicsecurityissues,amplifiedbyclimatechangethroughfloodrisks.Thefloodsof2008, thenthatof2014inBechar;andthosethatsomecitieshaveexperiencedthisautumn (Tebessa,Constantine,Algiers...);withtheirplotsofdamageininfrastructure,andprivate andpublicgoods,estimatedatbillionsofdinars;challengeustostartapresentation, techniques used in other countries, and ways to adapt them in the region. Theurbanplanninghaveanimpact,qualitativeandquantitative,onthewaterresourceand ontherisksofflooding.Extensiveurbanizationleadstoalackofinfiltration,leachingof  urban pollutants and increases the risk of flooding. Stormwaterretention-treatmentwouldalsomitigatetheriskoffloodflooding,andthe storageandreuseofthesewaterswouldincreasetheadditionalirrigatedareaandsave palm groves from drought. Theissueofavailabilityinthefaceofshortages,duetotheloweringofthelevelofthedams resulting from the drought. Publichealthchallenges:assignificantquantitiesofdomesticwastewatercontinues,todate, tobedischargedintothewildwithoutanypriortreatment,whichgeneratesnegative impactsontheenvironment,groundwater,andthehealthofpeopleincontactwiththese watersbecauseofthewaterdiseasestheymaycause.Therearesignsofwaterpollutionthat deserve attention right now. Howtopurifythewatersduringthesetimesofcrisis,everywhereinallourtownsand  villages at a lower cost? Low-costsanitationandecologicalpurificationissueforreuseinirrigation,orforthesupply of groundwater without risk of pollution. BEN AMARA ELHABIB benamaraelhabib08@gmail.comPage 4    Generalization of phytoepuration in Saharan habitat    Thepollutioneffectslinkedtothedischargeofwastewaterinurbanandruralareas encouragetherationalmanagementofthiswaterresourcethroughtheuseofactionsto optimize the management of water in all its rain, waste and underground forms. .. How to reduce wastewater pollution, source of waterborne diseases? Theproblemofpollutioncausedbysewagehasbecomeworrying,thepurificationofthese watershasbecomeanecessity.Inthesemomentsofcrisis,theexperienceoffiltering gardens(gravelandreeds),includingapilotexperimentwascarriedoutin Timacine-Laghouat,istobegeneralizedtoahundredacrossthecountryinviewofthe convincingresultsobtainedinthepurificationwastewater,aspromisedbytheministerof  waterresources,duringapressconferenceintheeveningof08/05/2013,butnonehasbeen achieved to date. Regulatoryandlegislativeissuesofstreamliningcommunityactionandeducatingcitizens about all aspects of water and its management. Theresearchwilldefinemeasurestogeneralizethecreationofwetlandsplantedwith reeds.Structuringandenhancingmeasuresintermsoflandscapeforthepreventionof  urban floods, and the limitation of pollution should be taken. ByshowingthelimitsofAlgerianregulationsonwatermanagement(rainwaterand wastewater) compared to the legislation of some developed countries. Thisthesisaimsatthecoherentmanagementofthewholewaterproblematic,whetherrain or waste, in different scales from local to global. Theresearchshowstheexperienceofdevelopedcountriesinalternativemanagementto thesolution"atthesewer"ofrainwaterandwastewaterwitheconomicandecological means: based on the concept of the filter planted with reeds. Theresearchmustalsobeanopportunitytodefine,topresentandpromotethesustainable managementofstormwaterbythegeneralisationofalternativetechniquestothesolution ofalltothesewer.Thesetechniquesarenowindispensablebecausemoreefficientandless expensive: Ifthepurificationofwastewaterisamatterofcoursetolimitpollutionandreducehealth risks,theestablishmentoftreatmentplantsisbeingheldhostageononesidebythehigh costofthefacilities,andontheotherhandbythetechnicaldifficultiesoftheiroperation and handling (spare parts, and consumption of electricity, ...) Atthesametime,thetechniquesevolve,diversify,improveintheworldthankstoresearch andachievementsstartedandundertakenfordecades.Inparticularthephyto-purification techniques: filters planted with reeds. BEN AMARA ELHABIB benamaraelhabib08@gmail.comPage 5  
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