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Handbook of Research on Mobile Devices and Smart Gadgets in K-12 Education A volume in the Advances in Educational Technologies and Instructional Design (AETID) Book Series

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Handbook of Research on Mobile Devices and Smart Gadgets in K-12 Education A volume in the Advances in Educational Technologies and Instructional Design (AETID) Book Series
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  Handbook of Research on Mobile Devices and Smart Gadgets in K-12 Education Amar Ali Khan National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan  Sajid Umair National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan  A volume in the Advances in Educational Technologies and Instructional Design (AETID) Book Series  Published in the United States of America byIGI GlobalInformation Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global)701 E. Chocolate AvenueHershey PA, USA 17033Tel: 717-533-8845Fax: 717-533-8661 E-mail: cust@igi-global.comWeb site: http://www.igi-global.comCopyright © 2018 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without written permission from the publisher.Product or company names used in this set are for identification purposes only. Inclusion of the names of the products or companies does not indicate a claim of ownership by IGI Global of the trademark or registered trademark. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataBritish Cataloguing in Publication DataA Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library.All work contributed to this book is new, previously-unpublished material. The views expressed in this book are those of the authors, but not necessarily of the publisher.For electronic access to this publication, please contact: eresources@igi-global.com. Names: Khan, Amar Ali, 1989- editor. | Umair, Sajid, 1992- editor.Title: Handbook of research on mobile devices and smart gadgets in K-12 education / Amar Ali Khan and Sajid Umair, editors. Description: Hershey, PA : Information Science Reference, 2018. | Includes bibliographical references. Identifiers: LCCN 2017008845| ISBN 9781522527060 (hardcover) | ISBN 9781522527077 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Mobile communication systems in education. | Computer-assisted instruction. | Tablet computers. | Smartphones. | Education--Effect of technological innovations on. Classification: LCC LB1044.84 .H364 2018 | DDC 371.33--dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017008845 This book is published in the IGI Global book series Advances in Educational Technologies and Instructional Design (AE-TID) (ISSN: 2326-8905; eISSN: 2326-8913)  103 Copyright © 2018, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited. Chapter 8 DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2706-0.ch008 ABSTRACT Contrary to the benefits and opportunities mobile learning may provide, “Teacher preparation pro-grams are often devoid of opportunities to teach with mobiles” (Herro, Kiger, & Owens, 2013, p. 31).  Educators need to understand the pedagogical affordances and limitations of mobile technology tools and develop materials and lessons based on frameworks or models grounded in research and practice. This article presents an overview of research and mobile learning integration frameworks in order to  provide a theoretical and practical basis for app selection and integration in the K-12 and higher edu-cation classroom. Educators need to understand the pedagogical affordances and limitations of mobile technology tools and develop materials and lessons based on frameworks or models grounded in research and practice. This article presents an overview of research and mobile learning integration frameworks in order to provide a theoretical and practical basis for app selection and integration in the K-12 and higher education classroom. INTRODUCTION Mobile technology has great potential for incorporating engaging, interactive and learner-centered in-structional activities into traditional or online classrooms. There is an increasing expectation for teach-ers to incorporate mobile learning into their classrooms (Foulger, Waker, Burke, Hansen, Williams & Slykhuis, 2013). For effective adoption and classroom integration, there is an urgent need to develop Preparing Teachers for Mobile Learning Applications Grounded in Research and Pedagogical Frameworks Selma Koc Cleveland State University, USA Joanne E. Goodell Cleveland State University, USA  104 Preparing Teachers for Mobile Learning Applications Grounded in Research and Pedagogical Frameworks  strategies, methods and models grounded in theory and best practice. Educators need to “engage with the deeper questions about teaching and learning that will continue to underlie the application of learn-ing technologies” (Parsons, 2014, p. 217).Mobile applications and their innovative features can be attractive to educators to use in their traditional or online classrooms for activities and purposes such as differentiating and enriching the curriculum, sparking student interest and engagement, and extending classroom learning. Mobile technologies can facilitate formative assessment and personalized instruction while augmented reality applications can help engage the learner in authentic learning and the transfer of knowledge and skills to real-life situations (Fritschi & Wolf, 2012). In addition, mobile technology can provide just-in-time access to resources and shared collaborative spaces for students or teachers to work together on projects.Stevenson, Hedberg, Highfield and Diao (2015) regard mobile app use in the classroom as a cognitive stepping stone in the learning process. They talk about the role of mobile devices in encouraging a wider range and more forms of literacies such as creating, authoring, co-authoring and publishing visual texts to reflect the users’ world. According to Khaddage, Müller & Flintoff (2016), mobile learning “accom-modates and supports personal agency of the learner in a way that the learner can decide when, where and how he or she will learn; as such, mobile learning is instrumental in just-in-time and on-demand learning” (p. 16). This is particularly important as access to learning via mobile technologies can be critical to motivate students to utilize just-in-time and on-demand learning opportunities to their benefit.Educators and researchers can benefit from past experiences of technology integration into the teaching and learning process to embark on new technology-driven interventions (Parsons, 2014). Mobile technol-ogy and application (app) design and development as well as classroom integration should be grounded in pedagogy that will activate, support and increase engaged learning. Without a sound understanding of pedagogy grounded in theory and research, initiatives to incorporate mobile apps and technologies can result in teacher deterrence or ineffective use of these technologies in the classroom; thus, failing to take advantage of the benefits of mobile learning.Since more research is needed with mobile learning technology, schools should find unique ways to blend mobile learning “seamlessly into their settings to create an engaging informal learning environment” (Khaddage, Müller & Flintoff, 2016, p. 23). It’s important that preservice teachers are well-prepared to integrate mobile apps using pedagogies that are grounded in theory and research that is informed by best practice.Hu and Garimella (2014) emphasize the emergent need for up-to-date training on the use of mobile technology for K-12 teachers. In addition, professional development activities on infusing technology into the curriculum for in-service teachers and teacher educators need to be based on effective technology integration models, frameworks or strategies. Teacher educators need to model how to develop “creative links between what is being learned (content), how it is taught (pedagogy), and the appropriate tools (technology)” (“What is TPACK?,” n. d.).Herro, Kiger and Owens (2013) argue that clear examples of best practice for preparing teacher educators to use of mobile devices with their preservice teachers are not available. There are neither any clear models or strategies that guide teacher practice integrating mobile technology nor have they been tested or researched in order to make effective connection between theory and practice. This article presents an overview of current research on mobile technology and technology integration models and frameworks in order to provide a theoretical and practical basis for app selection and integration in the K-12 and teacher education classrooms.  105 Preparing Teachers for Mobile Learning Applications Grounded in Research and Pedagogical Frameworks  MOBILE TECHNOLOGY IN THE CLASSROOM Mobile learning and applications represent a technological advance that enable rich, distributed and contextualized approaches to learning (Crompton, 2014). Parsons (2014) lists five innovations of mobile devices and applications which provide a broad range of opportunities for gathering and sharing knowl-edge with teachers and learners. These innovations include: 1) Placing learning in a specific context (i.e., mathematical or scientific inquiry in real-world problem-solving situations), 2) augmenting reality with virtual information, 3) contributing to shared learning resources, 4) having an adaptive [mobile] learn-ing toolkit accessible instantly (i.e., a distance-measuring device, a compass), and 5) taking ownership of learning. These innovations can change the classroom practice of teachers enabling each student to have their own device for learning such as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) and by taking the learning outside the classroom through “flipped classroom” and “informal learning” (Parsons, 2014).Technology companies have already delved into the mobile technology market which are increasingly developing and promoting educational apps. Google Apps has been gaining popularity in schools and among educators. Google Play for Education is designed for schools. It enables developers to mark their apps suitable for K-12 student use and queues them for K-12 teacher approval (Weiss, 2013). However, many schools and teachers seem to be reluctant to allow the use of mobile devices during the school day due to the lack of control of student activities and safety concerns which has limited the widespread use of mobile technologies and tools in education (Khaddage, Müller & Flintoff, 2016). While these are legitimate concerns, the benefits of mobile technology use for learning are clear and cannot be dis-missed. However, without carefully studying the safety and security aspects of using mobile technology, the future impact will most likely continue to be limited.A Project Tomorrow (2015) study found that “Among students who are using school laptops, tablets, and Chromebooks, 51 percent of high school students and 46 percent of middle school students note that their out of school Internet connectivity is through a mobile data plan” (p. 3). Initiatives to increase equitable access to technology such as the E-rate Modernization Order underline the importance of digital learning in K-12. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) adopted the Second E-rate Modernization Order in 2014 which takes actions towards modernizing and streamlining school and library universal service support program known as the E-rate program (“FCC,” n.d.-a). The first E-rate Modernization Order aimed to ensure “affordable access to high-speed broadband sufficient to support digital learning in schools and robust connectivity for all libraries” and the collective effort of these actions will lead to “connect 10 million students a year to 21st Century educational tools” (“FCC,” n.d. -b, para. 4). “The Second E-rate Modernization Order first addresses the connectivity gap facing many schools and libraries, particularly in rural areas”, by expanding the funding through the funding year 2019 (“FCC,” n.d.- a, para. 2).Challenges and risks rise contrary to benefits and opportunities mobile technology may provide in teaching and learning. Digital divide, distractions and threats, and poor return on investment can impact the adoption and use of mobile technology (Parsons, 2014). Wei, Teo, Chan & Tan (2011) define digital divide in three levels (as cited in Parsons, 2014, p. 225): 1) The digital access divide, 2) the digital ca-pability divide and 3) the digital outcome divide. Digital divide is not only about access, but it requires many aspects of digital literacy and citizenship that impacts the outcomes on learning. Digital distraction and threats include safety and security of students as well as misuse of mobile devices and potential for information overload and data collection rather than meaning-making. Parsons (2014) notes that educa-tors “still have much to learn about instructional design, as new technologies present new challenges”
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