Technology

Instrumentation for Test & Measurement Professional Development Technical Training Short Course Sampler

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This three day course, based on the 690-page Sensor Technology Handbook, published by Elsevier in 2005 and edited by the instructor, is designed for engineers, technicians and managers who want to increase their knowledge of sensors and signal conditioning. It balances breadth and depth in a practical presentation for those who design sensor systems and work with sensors of all types. Each topic includes technology fundamentals, selection criteria, applicable standards, interfacing and system designs & discussion of future developments.
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  • 1. Professional Development Short Course On: Instrumentation for Test & Measurement Instructor: Jon WilsonATI Course Schedule: http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htm http://www.aticourses.com/Instrumentation_For_Test_Measurement.htmATIs Instrumentation for Test & Measurement:
  • 2. e e at at lic l ia om lic up er .c up at D es D IM ot rs ot N om AT ou N o Ic o D .c • AT l • D l ia www.ATIcourses.com es te l• er rs a ia w. a ic at om er w ri ou pl M w ate .c at Ic u TI D es M MBoost Your Skills •A ot rs TI 349 Berkshire Drive IAT w. N ou A te Riva, Maryland 21140 ATwith On-Site Courses w Do Ic te • .c ca Telephone 1-888-501-2100 / (410) 965-8805 te om es li ca l• om a rs upTailored to Your Needs Fax (410) 956-5785 w .c lic ia w. li ou D Email: ATI@ATIcourses.com w up er es up AT Ic ot at w D rs D AT N MThe Applied Technology Institute specializes in training programs for technical professionals. Our courses keep you ot ou ot ocurrent in the state-of-the-art technology that is essential to keep your company on the cutting edge in today’s highly N I Ic N w. D ATcompetitive marketplace. Since 1984, ATI has earned the trust of training departments nationwide, and has presented o AT Do l• Don-site training at the major Navy, Air Force and NASA centers, and for a large number of contractors. Our training ia l•increases effectiveness and productivity. Learn from the proven best. w. • er w ial ia w at er w erFor a Free On-Site Quote Visit Us At: http://www.ATIcourses.com/free_onsite_quote.asp IM at at IM AT IMFor Our Current Public Course Schedule Go To: http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htm w AT AT
  • 3. Instrumentation for Test & Measurement Based on the Sensor Technology Handbook
  • 4. •A sample of the 572 slides in the course
  • 5. The Course• Based on the “Sensor Technology Handbook” edited by Jon Wilson, published by Newnes/Elsevier, copyright 2005, 691 pages plus CD.• Some slides contain figure numbers. They refer to the book figures.• This course covers only the highlights of the book.• For discount order form, contact instructor.
  • 6. Performance Characteristics• Transfer Function – Curve of Output/Input• Sensitivity – Slope of Transfer Function• Span or Dynamic Range – Usable Range of Inputs• Accuracy or Uncertainty – Largest Expected Error• Hysteresis – Output Difference, Increasing & Decreasing
  • 7. Performance Characteristics (2)• Nonlinearity (Linearity) – Deviation of Transfer Function From Straight Line• Noise – Extraneous Output Added to Signal• Resolution – Minimum Detectable Signal Fluctuation • Related to Noise Spectrum• Bandwidth & Frequency Response – Usable Frequency Range & Variation of Sensitivity
  • 8. Some Sensor Characteristics
  • 9. Smart Sensors
  • 10. The Measurement• Expected Amplitude Range• Expected Frequency Range• Expected Environment• Economic Constraints• Installation Constraints• Available Instrumentation
  • 11. The Data Sheet• Filtering the Data Sheet• What is Pertinent?• Interpreting the Data Sheet• Getting Clarification – Literature – Experts & Consultants – Manufacturers
  • 12. System Considerations• Sensor Characteristics• Interconnections• Signal Conditioner Characteristics• Data Acquisition Characteristics• Readout Characteristics• Data Validation• Analysis and Interpretation
  • 13. Instrument Selection• Sensor Environment• Sensor Performance Characteristics• Sensor Electrical Characteristics• Sensor Size and Weight• Sensor Mounting• Cable Environment• Cable Performance Characteristics• Cable Mechanical Characteristics
  • 14. Instrument Selection (2)• Power Supply Environment• Power Supply Performance• Power Supply Size and Weight• Amplifier Environment• Amplifier Performance• Amplifier Size and Weight
  • 15. Quantifiable Measurements• REQUIRE:• What is the Measurand?• What is the Environment?• What Uncertainty (Accuracy) is Required?• Whole System Calibrated & Traceable?• Appropriate Sensor is Necessary, But Not Sufficient.
  • 16. Sensor Resistances
  • 17. Bridge Configurations
  • 18. Minimizing Offset Errors
  • 19. Noise Sources
  • 20. DC Errors
  • 21. ADC Types ADC’S FOR SIGNAL CONDITIONINGSuccessive Approximation• Resolutions to 16-bits• Minimal Throughput Delay Time• Used in Multiplexed Data Acquisition SystemsSigma-Delta• Resolutions to 24-bits• Excellent Differential Linearity• Internal Digital Filter, Excellent AC Line Rejection• Long Throughput Delay Time• Difficult to Multiplex Inputs Due to Digital Filter Settling TimeHigh Speed Architectures:• Flash Converter• Subranging or Pipelined
  • 22. PE Amplifier Circuit
  • 23. CCD Arrays
  • 24. Technology Fundamentals• Piezoelectric• “Crystal” type• Self-generating• Piezoelectric materials – Natural (monocrystalline) – Piezoceramic (polycrystalline)
  • 25. IEPE Sensor System
  • 26. MEMS PR Construction
  • 27. MEMS VC Accelerometer
  • 28. Selection Process• Frequency range?• Sensitivity or amplitude range?• Environment, especially temperature?• Size and mass restraints?• Mounting configuration?• Consult manufacturer’s application engineers?
  • 29. Interfacing and Designs
  • 30. Overview
  • 31. Biosensor characteristics• Sensitivity• Selectivity• Range• Response time• Reproducibility• Detection limit• Life time• Stability
  • 32. Transduction Mechanisms• Amperometry• Potentiometry• Photometry• PE materials• Conductimetric• Thermometric• Enzyme thermistor• FET transducer
  • 33. Biosensor configurations
  • 34. Mass Spectrometer Schematic
  • 35. Mass Spectrometer
  • 36. Inductive Sensors• “Eddy current sensors”• Require conductive targets• Not affected by gap material• Sensitive to target material• Nanometer resolutions• > 80 kHz• Minimum target thickness requirement
  • 37. Selecting and Specifying• Physical configuration• Output, Range• Offset, Standoff• Sensitivity, Linearity, Resolution• Bandwidth• Thermal errors• Accuracy
  • 38. Comparing Capacitive and Inductive Sensors
  • 39. Latest Developments• Little change in sensors• Advances in electronics• Miniaturization• Embedded electronics• Digital interface
  • 40. Inductive Sensor (LVDT)
  • 41. Hall Effect Sensor
  • 42. 10. Flow and Level SensorsMass, volume, laminar, turbulent flow.Hydrostatic, ultrasonic, RF capacitance, magnetostrictive, microwave level.
  • 43. Methods for Measuring Flow• Thermal anemometers• Differential pressure• Vortex shedding• Positive displacement• Turbine-based• Mass (Coriolis)• Electromagnetic• Ultrasonic• Laser
  • 44. 11. Force, Load & Weight Sensors Piezoelectric & Strain Gage
  • 45. Load Cell
  • 46. 12. Humidity SensorsCapacitive, resistive & thermal conductivity
  • 47. Selecting and Specifying• Accuracy, Repeatability, Interchangeability• Stability, Condensation recovery• Contamination resistance, Size & packaging• Cost effectiveness, replacement cost• Calibration• Complexity of signal conditioning
  • 48. Interfacing and Design• Output affected by temperature & RH• Temperature compensation required for best accuracy• Industrial grade sensors incorporate RTD on the ceramic substrate• RHIC output depends on supply voltage, RH and temperature
  • 49. Photosensors• Quantum detectors convert photons to electrons• Thermal detectors absorb radiant energy and measure temperature change
  • 50. IR Detector Spectral Responses
  • 51. 16. Pressure Sensors Gauge Absolute Differential
  • 52. Many technologies• Silicon strain gages (Piezoresistive)• Variable reluctance• Variable capacitance• Fiber optic• Piezoelectric• (Every company that makes any kind of sensor makes pressure sensors)
  • 53. Types of pressure measurement• Gauge• Differential• Absolute• Vacuum gauge• All are actually differential, with different references
  • 54. Latest & Future• Miniaturization• Higher temperatures• Sensor identification – Smart sensors (IEEE1541) – SAW tag• Wireless
  • 55. 20. Temperature Sensors
  • 56. Basic types• Contact: the sensor is in contact with the medium or object being measured• Non-contact: interprets the radiant energy of a heat source in the form of infrared radiation – Useful on non-reflective solids and liquids – Not useful with gases because of their transparency
  • 57. 21. Nanotechnology-Enabled Sensors Smaller than small; atomic level
  • 58. More possibilities• Increasing integration of materials, devices and systems• “nanotech takes the complexity out of the system and puts it into the material”• Single molecule detection• Nanotech data storage 10^12 bits/sq. in.• High volume production of tiny, low-power smart sensors
  • 59. Nano-array of Cantilevers & Electronics
  • 60. Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks• Increase reliability of data gathering• Reduce deployment costs• Minimize long term maintenance costs• Reduce cabling and connector costs• Ideal system is networked and scalable – Low power, smart, programmable, fast data rate, reliable, accurate, stable• Integrated sensor, electronics, communication
  • 61. Industrial Application
  • 62. You have enjoyed ATIs preview of Instrumentation for Test & Measurement Please post your comments and questions to our blog: http://www.aticourses.com/blog Sign-up for ATIs monthly Course Schedule Updates :http://www.aticourses.com/email_signup_page.html
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