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    LPG for Heavy Duty Engines Buses, Trucks, Marine and Other Applications Innovation & Technology    Page 1 LPG for Heavy Duty Engines, Buses, Trucks, Marine and Other Applications  The World LPG Association The WLPGA was established in 1987 in Dublin, Ireland, under the initial name of The World LPG Forum. It unites the broad interests of the vast worldwide LPG industry in one organisation, it was granted Category II Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council in 1989. The WLPGA exists to provide representation of LPG use through leadership of the industry worldwide.   Acknowledgements The srcinal version of this report was first developed by GLOTEC, the Global Technology Network of WLPGA. The 2017 issue is an update by the Innovation & Technology network of WLPGA. Some views in this report may not necessarily reflect the opinion of all contributors. Key contributors: George Nikolaou, Natco/AEGPL Cameron Ure, Elgas David Tyler, WLPGA Makoto Arahata, Japan LPG Association Rubens Basaglia, X-Tech Luis Fernandez, Westport/Prins Tucker Perkins, PERC Warring Neilsen, Elgas Nikos Xydas from WLPGA coordinated this project. Issue 2017    LPG for Heavy Duty Engines Buses, Trucks, Marine and Other Applications    Page 3 LPG for Heavy Duty Engines, Buses, Trucks, Marine and Other Applications  Contents Page Chapter One Introduction 6 Chapter Two  Executive Summary 7 2.1   Key Messages  –  Fact Sheet 9 2.2   Key Messages  –  Roadmap 12 2.3   Key Messages  –  recommendations 13 Chapter Three  Fact Sheet 14 3.1   The Product  –  LPG as engine fuel 14 3.2   Engine Technologies 15 3.2.1   Spark Ignition (Otto cycle) dedicated (Mono) LPG Fuelled Engines 16 3.2.2   Spark Ignition (Otto cycle) Gasoline-LPG Bi-Fuelled Engines 18 3.2.3   Compression Ignition Diesel-LPG Dual Fuelled Engines 19 3.2.4   Turbine engines - Turbo-generators 24 3.2.5   Hybrid systems  –  LPG Range Extender Engines for Electric Vehicles 25 3.2.6   Fuel system technologies, Liquid / Vapour 32   Venturi systems 32   Vapour Port Injection 32   Liquid Port injection (LPI) 32   Liquid Direct Injection (GDI in gasoline) 33   DI Gasoline and PI LPG 33 3.2.7   Summary 35 3.3   Heavy Duty Engine Applications 36 3.3.1   Heavy Duty Vehicles Applications Overview 36 3.3.2   Vehicle segments Overview  – USA 37 3.3.3   Buses /Fleets 39   LPG School Buses Fleets 39   Public transport 42   LPG buses in City capitals  –  Clean fleets 42   Transit buses 43   Tourist City buses 43   Taxis 44 3.3.4   Trucks-Fleets 46   City Delivery Trucks 46   Refuse, Garbage Trucks 48
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