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Manual for K-Notes Why K-Notes? When do I start using K-Notes

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Manual for K-Notes Why K-Notes? When do I start using K-Notes
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       Manual for K-Notes  Why K-Notes?  Towards the end of preparation, a student has lost the time to revise all the chapters from his / her class notes / standard text books. This is the reason why K-Notes is specifically intended for Quick Revision and should not be considered as comprehensive study material. What are K-Notes?  A 40 page or less notebook for each subject which contains all concepts covered in GATE Curriculum in a concise manner to aid a student in final stages of his/her preparation. It is highly useful for both the students as well as working professionals who are preparing for GATE as it comes handy while traveling long distances. When do I start using K-Notes?  It is highly recommended to use K-Notes in the last 2 months before GATE Exam (November end onwards). How do I use K-Notes?  Once you finish the entire K-Notes for a particular subject, you should practice the respective Subject Test / Mixed Question Bag containing questions from all the Chapters to make best use of it.    Measurement & Instrumentation State characteristics of measuring system 1)   Accuracy Degree of closeness in which a measured value approaches a true value of a quality under measurement . When accuracy is measured in terms of error :    Guaranteed accuracy error (GAE) is measured with respect to full scale deflation.    Limiting error (in terms of measured value)   GAE* FullscaledeflationLEMeasuredvalue    2)   Precision Degree of closeness with which reading in produced again & again for same value of input quantity. 3)   Sensitivity Change the output quantity per unit change in input quantity.  oi qSq   4)   Resolution Smallest change in input which can be measured by an instrument 5)   Threshold Minimum input required to get measurable output by an instrument 6)   Zero Drift Entire calibration shifts gradually due to permanent set    7)   Span   Drift  If there is proportional change in indication all along upward scale is called span drift. 8)   Dead zone & Dead time The range of input for which there is no output this portion is called Dead zone. To respond the pointer takes a minimum time is called dead time. TYPES OF ERROR a)   Gross Error  : Error due to human negligency, i.e. due to loose connection, reading the value etc. b)   Systematic error  : Errors are common for all observers like instrumental errors, environmental errors and observational errors. c)   Random errors  : Error due to unidentified causes & may be positive or negative. Absolute Errors :    m rA  A A    m A  Measured value  r A  True value Relative Errors :  r =    AT AbsoluteErrorsTruevalue A           mm rT Tr AA A A 11      Composite Error : i)   Sum of quantities   1 2 X X X         x x1 x2  ii)   Difference of quantities   1 2 X X X         x x1 x2  So for sum & difference absolute errors are added. iii)   Multiplication of quantities    1 2 3 X X X X   31 21 2 3 XX XXX X X X          iv)   Division of quantities 12 XXX    1 21 2 X XXX X X         So, for multiplication & division, fractional or relative errors are added. If m m1 2p3 X XXX    31 21 2 3 XX XXm n pX X X X           Precision Index Indicates the precision for a distribution 1h2   
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