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New archaeo-metallurgical evidence for the beginnings of metallurgy in the southern Levant. Excavations at Tell Abu Matar, Beersheba (Israel) 1990/1

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New archaeo-metallurgical evidence for the beginnings of metallurgy in the southern Levant. Excavations at Tell Abu Matar, Beersheba (Israel) 1990/1
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  I" em Fig.I.01/' oj" ,Iu'hrnnze.nwrd\ fro mQidlilshown /It·/iJrt, conservationAsnndl lnnn !Jolt ' 111 1.\ drilledinlininconspicuouspl lln ' 10rt""Ol'(' /I . Wl mplefor('ompmitiOl wl anatysis. /1 H "iII "" jill l'das pan f~ / 1 J /(' conservation tr l'tll m nll . U.A.E., namel yUmman-Nar.Q att ar ah andQi df a.The threesitesrepresent diff er ent arc haeo logicalperiodsand. consequently.dilferenttechnologicalh or izons. The earliestgroupofart ef actsarcr epr esentative of thesecond half ofthethirdmill ennium II.C fromthei sland ofUmman -Nar.The groupconsists of fivesimpleobjects.mostlypinsandawls.Theseobjectswerevery basicforms and not sufficient f or typologicalstudy.The metalcompositionshadsomec harac teristicssimi lar tootherUmman -Na tob jec ts.forexamplewith 1 -2 '% of nickel and arsenic.However,theconcentrations of tinat1.5 l Yo . 0.6' 1': 1 and O2XI. respectively.in three of theanalyzedobjectsrepresentsasignificantdis cover y. Alth ou gh.oneobjectalloyedwithtin may seem early fortheUmman-Nar per iodinthearea. the actualalloying withtinandtheimplied orga nized trade routestotin sourceswouldnotbeunexpectedincomparisontowhat waspreviously known abouttheUmman- Nar acquisitionofot her materials.suchasgold. lap islazuliand ca rnelian(Weisgerber.19R5), The secondgroup of artefacts come fromagraveat Q au arah. intheAIAinoasis.Thesefinds form arepresen tat ivecollec tion of weapon sfromaclassical W ad iSuq context, e.2 {)( X) R. C Exceptfor one exam plewith about SX,tin.theot her short dagge rs and triangularbl ade sarcunalloyedwithtin.Theconcent ratio ns of arsenic and nickelarcbelowabout1%.Socketedspear head shavesimi lar compo sitions.Thelatestg roup isfrom Qidfa .asiteonthecastc oas t of theOman peninsula. The collection is tentatively dated tothel atter p art ofthesecondmill ennium . B.C. inanearly Iron Agecontext.F rom thecollec tio n of 26analyzeda rro w hea dsfromQidfa.thetinconcentra tio nsseemran do m.with no cor rela tion betweentinconc entr ation.s hape orincised deco ra tion .In cont rast. four examples of swords/daggers (32---4Ocm in ove ralllength:Fig.I)from Qidf ahave between 7-9':;',tinwiththe inferreddeliberatecontrol of com pos ition. Three heavyrings(each530-1.220gms.)wereanalyzedaswellshow ingtin concentrat ionsbetween 8- 1.3 ' Yt ,. Ashaftholeaxe andan adze werealsoalloyedwithtin. From the object sstudied.thereappearstobeagood und erstandingofthe advantage s of cold-workingand an nealingco pper forthematerial from b oth Q attarah and Qidfa.Theutiliza tion of copper-tinalloyswasmuch m or eprevalent at Qidfa and seems co mparabletoalloyingpracticesat later dat es (Weisgerber, 19RR).Aprelimi nar ytypologicalinvesti gat ionofthis material revealed man y par allelswith other fi nds from Omanand theU.A.E..b oth in composition and form, Wider para llelswereidentified.withthe mat erialdisplayingsimilarities to material fromwe stern Iran.theTalyshregion of Iran and from Syria /P alestine. Th e trian gul ar daggerbl ade sfromQattarah an dtheheavyringsf rom Qidfa.however. seem unique to theOmanpeninsula. From theresults. theintro duc tion of tintoallowwide spr e ad use of br onze f or w eap onsandotherobjectsat Qid fa can bed ocu mentedandm anife stcharacteristicsofb oth importedaswellaslocal metalworkin gtr aditi ons.Theexcavatorandcuratorofthe mat erialfrom Qidfa and Qattarah isDrWalidYasinoftheAI-AinMuseum. Loan of theobjectstotheInstitute of Ar chaeology.University Co llegeL ond on.forarchaeo-metallurgicalanalysisandconservation(Fig.2)wasa rra ngedby Dr J.Merkelt hroug htheT ouri sm and AntiquitiesDirect or ate.AI-Ain.Emirate of AbuDh ab i. Th e ar cha co-metullurgiealinvestigation of thema ter ialisn ow complete. It was und ert aken asa M.S e. rep ort bytheauthor underthe supervisionofMr C PhillipsandDrJ.Merkelinthe lAM S Arehaeo-Metallurg ypro gramme at the Institute of Ar chaeology.UCL.Presently.the metal objects arc und ergoingconservationtreatm ent bystudents und erthe supervision ofDrJ.Merkel and MsK. Tubb as part of theirte achin ginthecourse' Co nservation of Metallic Artefa cts . Tbe lo an oftheobjectsis gratefully acknow ledged. It isasplendidopportunitytow ork onsuch interesting.high- qualit yobjectsin prep ar ationfortheirdisplayattheAI-AinMuseum. JasonRyall References Weisgerber.G.(19X5)Dilmun-atradingentrepot:Evidencefrom historicalandarchaeologicalsources, f)ihll/m12. Weisgerber.G.( 19X 6)Oman: i\ bronzeproducingcentreduringthe firsthalfofthefirstmillenniumH.C.In J. Curtis.cd. Bron;('-"'or kin f!. Centres of W('.\/emAsiac. /,()(}(J -53QH C. NewArchaeo-MetallurgicalEvidencefortheBeginnings of MetallurgyintheSouthernLevant.Excavations at TellAbu Matar ,Beersheba(Israel)1990/1 InlAMS Newsletter No. 17.1991.theChalcolithie(4th millennium II.C) Ghas sulian-Ileer sheb aenigmawas reviewedas one of themostsignificant unans w ered que stion sintheearlyhist or y of thesouthernLev ant intimatelyconnectedwithmet allur gy. Thi senig ma, which was impressivelyemphasizedbythesensational discoveryby P.Bar-Aden. ame mbe r of Yigael Yadin's famou s Judaean DesertExpedition(1960).of hundre dsII  '111111111111IIIIUIII il1 lll llll ll f.l:J'j Ill lll lll llfI 1UI 'l llt ltl E AST NORTH ~ ll n m 1991 AlAR BU WEST . AREA AS ECTIO NI• , ~ "i': '."i 5lQo ~== :;"". ~ ~ '\ ~ ~ r" 'X- e- - <, • ~ •...;' ;' ;' ;"' % .:.:: 1 ~~mlH ,, ~~ ' ~ " ~ ' '' ~ ~ 'OQt; I "- ~ I ,0 ~' I l ~ " ~ I' II . ~ : 1 , .: .'....- ... .... _, II 1.°, \\ \,\: --.l..l.-U 1 tz2J IIIII [illl] 1IIIlTII.111'11 ~ Il lll lll nn lS:SJ IUIIUI III] IIUltdl'limll ~~ lU lU .25177 1_=_=_11 fl 1(. I.ThesectioninTn'm ·II I .. \!lol\ -; ngthelocation f ~r till' copperprocessinginstallation of sophisticatedprestigemetalobjectsinthe Nahal Mi shm ar cave,hasitsfocalpointatTelAbuMatar. ncar thetown of Beersheba.intheNegev of Israel.Here. similarsophisticatedprestigeobjects.aswellasremains of m or eprimitive.localco ppe rw ork ing.wereuncovered byJ.P err otintheearly1950·s.However.because of thesparsityofmetallurgicalprocessdebrisintheseexc ava tions.it had hithert onotbeenpossibletoreliablyrecon structtheancientcop per smeltingand wor kingtechnology of this ear ly,prehistoric phase of metallurgy. or to establishthesource of thesophisticatedprestigeobjects andtheirmanufa ctu ringtechnology. The followingpreliminaryre port ontherecentlyrenewedex cavation atTellAbuMatarreviews the unique lindof technolog ically comprehensive groups of metallurg ical productionand wo rking remains.fromthe orcs tothefinished object. and theirsignificanceforthe reconstruction of thebeginnings of copper technology in theChaleo lithiePeriod. This uni que findis nowproviding thematerialbaseforanewresearch programme .which will followthetrail of arehaeo- meta llurgyto ward sthesolution of theGhassullian-Bccrs hcba enigma.Tell Abu Mat ar wasoriginallyexcavatedbyJean P err otintheearly1950's.whorevealedagroupof under gr ound structuresandstonewallingonthesurface above.relatedtotheGhassulianChalcolithicculture (Perrot1955:1 9M) .BetweenJanuary1990andM arch Fig. 2. Thecentre of tilt' copraprocessinginslallalioll Ti lt' "i tis about6th'macross. 1991salvage excavations were carriedout atTell Abu Matarby the ArchaeologicalDivision of Ben-GurionUniversity of theNegev,Beersh eb a. under the auspice s of theIsrael Ant iquitiesA uth ority.anddirectedbyIsaac Gilead.SteveRosenandPeterFabian.BenoRothenberg wascalledintotakecharge of thearc haco- rnctallurgicalinvesti gation s.Theimmediategoaloftheseexcavations wastoestablishtheext ent of theancientsiteinconnec tion withdevel opm ent plansinthearea. Du etothehugesize of the site(intheorder of 1.5hect ar es)itwasonlypossibletoexcavatesystematicallyanumber of key poin ts.supplementedbytrenchesinplaceswhereno surfaceremainswereevident. Area A:Ametallurgical w ork shop Adjacent totheh ab itationarea excavated byPerrot. TrenchI (Fig .Il. wascut in order to provide a deep sectionforthestudy of theenvi ronme ntal and geomor phologicalhistory of thesite. an aspect unknown from thepreviousexcavations.TrenchIprovedtobea most informativestratigraphicsectionandled to thediscoveryofam etallur gicalw ork sh op .Thesectionshowedaseries of tiltedthinashlayers.whichcontainedm or estonesth an anywhereelseinthesection and h ere were numer ouspockets of charcoal. pott eryshcrds,includinga slaggedrimofasmallcrucible, and m an ylittle lump s of coppersl ag andbitsofcopper.Sincethes tra tigraphyandfindsinthesectionsuggestedcopperpr odu ctionorw ork ing.a5msquarewasexc ava tedinthisarea. Inthecentre of thissquarewasashallowpit of abo ut0.5mdiameter.withh ard -bakedwallsindicative of hightem perat ures.whichweconsideredtobeametallurgical installation(Fig.2).Aboveitsfloorwerelenses of cha rcoal. bric kf ragmen ts.andvitrified lumps of silt.The sametype of mate rial.including also aspread of darkashes.was foun dinthe imme diatevicinity of theinstal lationinacircle of about2mdiameter,indicating pyroteehniealactivitiesrel ated tometallurgy.Evidence f or thisas sumpti oncanheseeninthe num erouspieces of sl ag and f rag ments of crucibles.severalpieces of slugged'furnacelining' and lump s of copper ore. Ther ewasalso a ceramicfragment whichseemstobe part of atuyere. The smallcrucibles.about6cmind iameter and6-Xcm deep .were made of the localloess. tempered withstraw. and showedon their rimathinlayerofshaggyencrus tationwithtraces of co rro dedcopper.sometimesalso 12  'spilling ove r'totheoutside.Theirinsidehadas mooth . vitrifiedsurface. Th e cr ucibles wer eobviouslyh eated from thet op (n ot from bel owand outsi de) -typicalf or melting/castingcrucibles.Thiswasrecentlyconfirmed byaprelimi narypetr ogra phic study of cruciblefrag rnents fromAbuMatarbyJ. Gore n (Go ren1992, unpublishedms). Alt hou gh the re were fragment sofbricks and vitrified brickmaterialinsideandintheimmediatevicinity of thefurnace-likeinstallation.itsoriginalcontours co uldnot beestablishedwith cert ainty.However.the ov erallc har acter of thefindsrelated 10 thisinstallation.especially the dark wo od ashes close totheinstalla tio n. not nor  mallyf ound inorncarasmeltingfurnace. would indicatecastingoperationsatthislocation.Thereremains of coursethequestion of thepresenceoforelumpsand fragmentso fs lagged'furnacelining'atthislocation.but thesec ou ldwellbest ray linds from a nearb yc opper smeltingfurnace.notyetuncovered.Thedamaging effect of flo od wat er(indicatedbylaminainthe section) a bo vetheinstallationcaused.insomecasesbypuddling. cou ldwellhave bee n the causealso of thedi spersion of 'intrusive'metallurgicaldebrisoverthesite. Ab out3mwest of this installation.inanothershallow. pit-liked epr essi on ,ande mbe ddedina layer of ash, wasa concentrationofstoneimplements, probably connectedwiththemetallurgicalactivitiesinthisarea:large cob- bles,splitinthe centre andusedasanvilsandsmaller p ebb les with flakingand pecking mark sindi cating th eir uscashammerst one s.S ome oftheseimplementsshowed greencopperstains.Therewerealsopieces of slag. char coal. cr ucible fragments, p otter y she rds and flintar tefacts . Area:\1:Ahabitationquarter- withmet allur gicalactivi til'S ( Fig .3)AreaM,a bo ut100m from Perrot's exca vations. was esse ntia llyadensely build up h ab itat i onquarter .where theex cav ationuncoveredseveralstrataofstoneand brickwallsandmoreundergroundstructures.thereby providingamuchimprovedpictureofthenatureand hi stor y of Chalcolithic Abu Matar (Gil ead etal.1991). Dispersedbetweenthestructuralremainswereore lamps,slaggedfu rnace p art s,s ma llpieces of c rus hedslag andafewcruciblefragments.Manymoremetallurgical proce ssremains of thesamek ind .includinga frag ment of fu rnac ewall co veredbya5mmthickla yer of solidslag, wer efoundinsideal ar geand deep pit.located underneath astonewall. Th e pre s er vedcurvature of Ihis FiK. 3. A tvpicaltiabitatton uf ChatcotitkicAhuMatar. " slugged furnacefragmentindicatedafurnacediameter of a bout 35cm. Allh ou ghmost of the metallu rgicalremains.found betweenthestructures of AreaM,seemedtobestray finds,theseap pea redtorepresentsomewhatdiff erent metallurgicalactivitiesthanthe finds inAreaA.Consi deringthecharacter of theslaggedfurnacewallfragment andthesmall.crushedslaglumps,aswellasthefactthat farlesscruciblefragmentswerefoundherethaninArea A.wewould.tentatively.suggestthatsomewherenearor inAreaMcoppersmeltingto ok placein furnacesvery much the type ofthe Chalcolithi cfurnaceat Tim naSite39(R othenberg 1990 .4 -6) . AreaII:Chalcolithicremainsunderneathafarmhouseof theArah Period Ina1.5mthickd ebri slayer undern eath the Ar ab f arm  house.locatedabout80mwest of AreaA.numerous metallurgicalfindsweremade.consisting of oreand/or slagn odu les.c oppe rprills. som el ar ger lump s of co ppe r oreandslag.andseveralcorrodedcopperobjects.This find clearly showsthe wide extentof metalw orki ngatChalcolithicTellAbuMalar. It appears thatmetalwor k ing of onekindorothertookplace almo steverywherein the area of thisChalcoli thicsettlement .inside and out side the actualh ab itation qu art ers, Summary Th e excavationsat Tell Abu M at arprov ided auniquely comprehensiveassemblage of metallurgical process debris.fromthecopperoreandmctalextractiontothe cas tingo peratio nandt heir p roduct ,thefi nished metal object. Th escientificprocessing or these findsis planned tocommenceearlyin1993 and we hope tobe able toestablishaco mprehensivemodel of G hass ulian-BcershebaChalcolithiccopperm etallu rgy, Th isinvestigationshouldalsoe stabli shwh eth er,besides(unalloyed)copper metallurgy.therewasalsoworkingwitharsenicalcop per. the alloyusedforthem anu factu reorthe'prestige objec ts' found arthe Ghas sul-Bccrsh cba sites,including Tell Abu Matar. On e or the maj or aims of thearchaeologicaland mater ial-scienceinvestigations of thefindsof Ab u Mat arwillbetoest abli sh the stratigraphy of thecommencement of metallurgicalactivitiesatthesiteand'the stratigraphicm omen t" of theappearance of theprestige objectsinthesettlement. It willalsobehighlyim po rta nt 10 establishthecha rac teroftheseemingly different metallurgical pro cessesinthediffe rent q uarter sof the site,whichwillshowthe degree ofc raft specialisation alrea dy atthis ear lystage of metal lur gy.Preliminary compar ati ve studi eshaves ho wn that the copperorefragmentsfoundatTell Abu Mataroriginate. mo stprobably.fromtheminingarea of Feinan.onthe n orth-w estofthe Ar ab ah,asalreadys ugg estedby J. P err ot (1957 ,38.8 7. Sl'C no walsoH aup tma nn 1989.12& 8). Th eevidence of wide spre adC ha lcolithicoretr ad ing.basedon the c opper min es of the Ar abah -where no sites of Gha ss ulian -Bccr sheb a culturehavebeenlocated representsahighlysignificant new pa rameter inthe culture-history of thesouthernLevant. Isaac Gilead.Stel'eRosell. Hen-Gurion UniversityBeersheba; Peter Fabian, IsraelAuthorityofAntiquities: 8('//0Rothenberg, l AM SL ondon .lnstitute of Min ingandMetallurgyin the BiblicalWorld.TelAviv 13  References Bar-Aden.P.19S0. The Om ' oj,lieTreasure. Jerusalem. Gilead. I.. Rosen.S.and Fabian. P.1991.Excuvauon.. atTell AbuMatar{theHatzcrimNeigh bour h ood }. Be er Sheva. jl/url/tl/ (~I ,he Prehistoric Society (Israel) ~ ~ : In ~9 . Hauptmann.A. 19 M9 .TheEarlie st Periods ofCopper\tetallurgyin Feinan.Jordan.inHauptmann.A. ral. tcd.). OldWorld ,-trclldt'o 11/i ,'tlllurKY. Bochum. 11 9 Jb. Perrot. J. 1955.Excavation..atTellAbuMararncar Be er sheba. tsrart £'fJ/ortl tiollJOI ", ,,,/5: 17 ~ t1 . n X ". 167-X9. Perrot. J. 19X .J.Structure d'habitat. mode dela vic etenvironmentles villagessoutcrrainsdespasturesdeBc er sgcvadansIe..udd'Isracl. au IVcmillenaircevantl'ercchrcticnnc. Puteoricnt I():7592. Rothenberg.B.. ( 'I /II. Archaco-MctallurgyontheTrailofHistory. lAMS S('In/elf!' r 17: (19911I 7. lAMS WorkshopSeries:Archaeo-metallurgyinthe AncientNearEast Inthe Ar ab ah. the geologicalriftvalleyfrom thc DeadSeasouthtothe Gu lf of AqabalElat. co pper miningand smelting has takenplacesince early prehi stori ctimes. Th ctwomostinvestigated archaco-mctallurgical areasin the regi on arc TimnaandFcinan,Thc remain s atTimna have beenthefocusofinterdisciplinarystudyf or almo st thirt yyears und erthe dir ecti on of ProfessorHcnoRoth enberg.Fcinan,tothen or th-cast. has largescale remains of prehi st oric miningandsmeltingwhichhavebeen intensivelyinvesti gated since19X4byateamof arc haeologists and scientistsfr om theJ ord ani an Dep artm entof Antiquit iesandtheD cut schcsBcrgbau-Museumdir ected by DrAndre asH auptm ann. Th erole of co pper productionatTimnaand Fei nan fortheancient history of thesouthern Levant. however .is not yetfullyu nde rs tood .Recent publications of the results of these investigations havecau sedlively debate in scho larly journals. especially relatin gto the chronology of the sitesand proposedreconstructions of themetallu rgical proc esses and installation s. Thereare anu mber of ot her criticalissueswhich hav enotyetbeenresolvedconccrningtr ad einorcs andcoppe rfordifferentarc haeo logical periods . Unfortu nately .since the mod ern borderbetwe en J ord anandIsraelseparates the setwo an cientmet allur gicalcentresintheAr abah .ithasnotbeenpossible bef or etoapp roac hthepr obl emsby detail ed compa rativestudies. Theref or e.thisfirstinapl anned series of specialistw ork sh op s addre ssedArch aco- Me tallurgyintheArabah, TheNcgc\'andSinai. Th emain purp oseforthisw or kshop was to pr ovideaninfor mal forumfordiscussion of the ar c haeo -metallurgicalevidencef rom these conti guous regions . It was co-orga nizedby the autho rs andtoo kplaceon23-24Octo ber 1992attheInstitute of A rchaeology.Unive rsity Co llegeLondon. Archaeol og istsandscientistsactively engaged in archaeo -metal lur gicalrese arch intheW ad i Ar abah atte nded f rom Ger ma ny. Gr eatIIritain.J ordan andIsrael. Th ew ork sh op wasdividedintothreep art s. Th efirstwasdedicatedto datin garchaeo- mcta llurgicalactivitiesand culture historicalpr oblem sinthe Arab ah.B.R othenb erg and J.Glasspr op osedadevel opm ental sequenceforcop per meta llurgybasedupon three techn olo gicalstages.Evidenceforthisdivi sion wasextensivestudyof the m inera logical and chemicalcompositionofp ott eryb oth from TimnaandS ina i.R oth enbergespeciallystressedtheenigma of the Gh assulian and lIeerSheba culturesrelativetothedevel opm ent sintheC halco lithic14of the Arabah andSinai. li e propo sedaL at eeolithic datc f or the earliest copper smeltingsite (F 2)at Timn a. The devel opment of mining technol ogy atFein an from the Chalcolith icupto the Roman period was explained byG.Weisgerber. li ewas able tosetupa chron olo gy both by archaeological evidence and 41 radiocarbon da tesderived from charcoal samples from different archaeo-meta llurgicalsites.At Feinan it wasnot possible.evenbyextensive archaeo logical excavat ionatTell FeinanbyM.AI-Najjar. 10 findevidenceofsmelting activitiesearlierthanthemiddle of thefourthmill enn iumB.C. Dur ingthef ou rthmille nnium .the cop per ore itselfwastradedto sett lementsintheNegev andhad beensmelted the re.Very inte re stingarechange s presented by S. Shalev in copper metallurgy fromtheChaJco lithic period to the Early B ron zeAge.During the EllA. copper ore was smelted nearthemine s and themetal traded .EarlyBronzeAgesmeltingsites have been reported from bothTimn a(EllIV) andFeinan (EllII).W. Frit z reported on the excavation of anEBIIandIronAgesite at Barqaal-HetiyeinFei nan .Midianite pottery ispres ent at thissite. The seco nd major topic dealt withtheeval uation of pr ovenance stu diesbasedup on leadiso tope analyses andgeo chemical dat afromTimnaandFeinan.Z.Stos-Gale voicedc onc ernreg ard ingsample numb ersusedforch ar acterizationoforesandsl ags . It wasagreed that itisneces sar ytocompareartefactswithb oth the ore dep osititselfandslags at thesmeltingsites. Th is contr ibutionwasfollowedbya lecture on the mostrecent measure men tsonlead isotopecom position of orcs from Timna by. Ga lein compariso nwith the data availa ble fromFeinan . So far. more than50oresampleshave lead isotoperesults atTimna . Generally. the Tirnna oreshave asi milar patt ern astheores from theDol om it e-L ime sto ne-Shale Uni tatFeinan. butove rallreveala larger range.As empha sizedbyE.Pcrnicka,notonlylead isotope ana lyses.hut also thegeoc hemica l cha racteristics of theores.slagsandmetalarenecessarytostudy provenan ce.Slags arepart icularlyimpor tan ttoprovide a dir ectlinkbetweenorcsandm etal s. Th eincreasing number of isotopeandchemicald at afor Timnaand Feinan provideanexcellentbasisfor futur erese ar chon the pro ven ance ofmetalartefactsf rom theregion. Inthethirdsession.aspects of ex trac tivemet allur gywerediscussed. It couldbedemonstratedbytheinvesti gation of slagsandmetalsf rom Fei nan (A.Hauptmann) that very pure co pperorcs have been sme lted during the
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