Bills

Objections

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OBJECTIONS. Civil and Criminal law in Kenya.
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  i | Page  Table of Contents LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS................................................................................................ ii   LIST OF STATUTES .......................................................................................................... iii   LIST OF CASES.................................................................................................................. iv   1   Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1   1.1   Definition of Objection ........................................................................................... 1   1.2   Purpose of Objections ............................................................................................. 2   1.3   Factors for Consideration in Objections................................................................... 3   1.3.1   Relevance: ....................................................................................................... 3   1.3.2   Reliability ........................................................................................................ 3   1.3.3   Legality: .......................................................................................................... 4   1.4   Preparation and Procedure of Making Objections. ................................................... 4   1.5   Ethical Considerations on Objections ...................................................................... 6   2   Preliminary Objections ................................................................................................... 7   2.1   Definition ................................................................................................................ 7   2.2   The Nature of Preliminary Objections ..................................................................... 7   2.2.1   Lack of Jurisdiction.......................................................................................... 8   2.2.2   Breach of Law and Rules of Procedure............................................................. 8   2.2.3   Lack of specificity in Pleadings ........................................................................ 8   2.2.4   Legal Inaccuracies of Pleadings ....................................................................... 9   2.2.5   Lack of Capacity .............................................................................................. 9   2.2.6   Prior Litigation ................................................................................................ 9   3   Trial Objections ............................................................................................................. 9   3.1   Introduction ............................................................................................................ 9   3.2   Types of Trials Objections .................................................................................... 10   3.3   Common trial objections ....................................................................................... 11   3.4   The Art of Trial Objections ................................................................................... 13   3.5   Making of Trial Objections ................................................................................... 14   3.6   Responding to Trial Objections ............................................................................. 15   BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................... 17   ANNEXURE ...................................................................................................................... 19    ii | Page   LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS HCC High Court Case LSK Law Society of Kenya PO Preliminary Objection  iii | Page   LIST OF STATUTES Civil Procedure Act Civil Procedure Rules 2010 Criminal Procedure Code Evidence Act, Cap 80 Law of Succession Act (Cap 160) Probate and Administration Rules, 1980  iv | Page   LIST OF CASES 1.   Avtar Singh Bhamra & Another vs Oriental Commercial Bank Civil suit No. 53 of 2004 2.   Hudson Liase Wailbwa vs AG NBI HCC No 2714 of 1987.   3.   Kashbhsi vs Sempagawa 1976 E.A 16 4.   Mary Wambui Munene  –  vs- Peter Gichuki Kingara and Six Others [2014] eKLR Petition No. 7 of 2013   5.   Mukisa Biscuit Company vs West End Distributors Limited  [1969] EA 696 6.    Ndirangu v Republic [1959] EA 875 7.   Owners of Motor Vessel “Lilian S” vs Caltex Oil Kenya (1989) KLR 1 8.   Quick Enterprises Ltd  –  vs- Kenya Railways Corporation Kisumu HCCC No. 22 of 1999. 9.   Republic v Mark Lloyd Stevenson [2016] eKLR, Crim. Revision No. 1 of 2016 10.   United States v Boney 977 2d 624 [D.C CIP 1992]  1 | Page   1   Introduction riminal trials and civil proceedings rely on the advocates’ submissions, evidence tendered in support of those submissions, and objections to either the submissions or evidence, or both. 1  You run the risk of being undermined by your opponent if you do not know when and how to object. As the proponent, you should  be guided by the limits of what you can do or say. Failure to adhere to this principle means that you run the risk of being overrun by your opponent’s well -timed objections. It is therefore imperative that every prosecutor and defense lawyer be well-versed in the rules of evidence, civil and criminal procedure, as well as learned in the skill of effective legal research and writing. 2  Your litigation abilities within the courtroom may well depend on it, if the judge is to understand and trust your knowledge of the law. 3   1.1   Definition of Objection Black’s Law Dictionary defines an  objection as a formal statement opposing an occurrence in court, requiring the judge to make an immediate ruling on it. 4  The occurrence objected to may be either a witness’s testimony or evidence that violates evidentiary rules or rules of procedure. 5  Usually, the objecting party must state the basis for the objection, to enable them appeal an unfavourable ruling. 6  The various types of objections are: a)   Preliminary Objections: These are raised before the actual hearing of the case and is determined based on merit, 7  for example, where a pleading is erroneously prepared and is in breach of a mandatory statutory provision.  b)   Trial Objections: These are divided into form and content objections. 8  They are objections to the form of questions as well as the evidence proffered within the courtroom setting. 9   1   Dan T Coenen, ‘Free Speech and the Law of Evidence’ (2018) 68 Duke LJ 639.   2   Gary Goodpaster, ‘On the Theory of American Adversary Criminal Trial’ (1987) 78 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 118. 3  ibid. 4  West Group,  Black’s Law Dictionary, 7th Ed   (Bukupedia 1999). 5   John C Busby, ‘Objection’ (  LII / Legal Information Institute , 2 November 2009) <https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/objection> accessed 8 May 2019. 6   Carlton Fields, ‘The Keys to Preserving Error for Appeal’ ( Carlton Fields ) <https://www.carltonfields.com/insights/publications/2018/the-keys-to-preserving-error-for-appeal> accessed 8 May 2019. 7   Hari Shankar, ‘The Concept of Preliminary Objections in Law’ < http://harishankar.org/blog/entry.php/the-concept-of-preliminary-objections-in-law> accessed 8 May 2019. C
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