Perspective of Station Uptime on Modeling and Management of the Base Station Energy Consumption

The network availability of the wireless network can be viewed as broader concept of network reliability. Reliability is a unique quality of wireless network and it is regarded as key parameter for business success of the telecom service providers. The network availability however is often compromised with outages caused by various factors and amongst the factors, inadequate energy at the base stations is the major outage-contributing factor. Due to unreliable electrical grid supply at many base stations, diesel generators are deployed to the stations as an alternative source of energy. The diesel generators incur high operating expenses. This paper presents a quantitative approach for measurement and estimation of diesel fuel consumption based on uptime hours of various equipments installed at the base station site. It also introduces a new parameter called energy conservation factor. The amount of energy transfer from external source such as grid and diesel generator to battery-bank during charging is determined by this factor. This model while presenting a new management perspective for effective utilization of the conserved energy of the battery-bank also attempts to reduce waste such as fuel losses and pilferages. We also describe how the method introduced in this paper can assist management in planning and preparation of fuel budget for a particular base station or the entire wireless network.
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  European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 !aper ISSN 2222-2#$9 %nline &ol.'( No.2#( 201) 2* Perspective of Station Uptime on Modeling and Management of the Base Station Energy Consumption +,. S,+/,N MEE+EI 1 ./. SIN3, 2  1./ore Networ4 iision( BSN6( +elep7one B7awan( Ba8upara( Imp7al-*95001(Manipur INI 2.Manipur Institute of Management Studies( Manipur niersit:( Imp7al-*9500)(Manipur INI Email of ;orresponding aut7or< tsmeetei=gmail.;om Abstract +7e networ4 aaila8ilit: of t7e wireless networ4 ;an 8e iewed as 8roader ;on;ept of networ4 relia8ilit:. elia8ilit: is a uni>ue >ualit: of wireless networ4 and it is regarded as 4e: parameter for 8usiness su;;ess of t7e tele;om seri;e proiders. +7e networ4 aaila8ilit: 7oweer is often ;ompromised wit7 outages ;aused 8: arious fa;tors and amongst t7e fa;tors( inade>uate energ: at t7e 8ase stations is t7e ma?or outage-;ontri8uting fa;tor. ue to unrelia8le ele;tri;al grid suppl: at man: 8ase stations( diesel generators are deplo:ed to t7e stations as an alternatie sour;e of energ:. +7e diesel generators in;ur 7ig7 operating e@penses. +7is paper  presents a >uantitatie approa;7 for measurement and estimation of diesel fuel ;onsumption 8ased on uptime 7ours of arious e>uipments installed at t7e 8ase station site. It also introdu;es a new parameter ;alled energ: ;onseration fa;tor( w7i;7 determines amount of energ: transfer to t7e 8atter:-8an4 w7ile ;7arging t7e 8atter: wit7 power from an e@ternal sour;e su;7 as grid( diesel generator. +7is model w7ile presenting a new management perspe;tie for effe;tie utiliAation of t7e ;onsered energ: of t7e 8atter:-8an4 also attempts to redu;e waste su;7 as fuel losses and pilferages. e also des;ri8e 7ow t7e met7od introdu;ed in t7is paper ;an assist management in planning and preparation of fuel 8udget for a parti;ular 8ase station or t7e entire wireless networ4. Keywords  ireless networ4 aaila8ilit: Networ4 relia8ilit: Networ4 outage Base station site /onsered energ: Energ: ;onseration fa;tor !   #ntroduction  +7e wireless te;7nolog: is one among t7e most soug7t after tele;ommuni;ation te;7nologies for dail: ;ommuni;ation and it represents an in;reasingl: 7ig7 per;entage of all new telep7one su8s;ription worldwide. +7e networ4 aaila8ilit: is t7e 8roader ;on;ept of networ4 relia8ilit: and it is a parameter of seri;e >ualit: for  8usiness su;;ess in t7e lo;al ;onte@t of t7e tele;om industr: in Manipur. +7e seri;e proider( w7i;7 ma4es  prompt address of t7is parameter( gets ;ompetitie adantage oer ot7er in t7e mar4et t7at 7as attained oligopol:. In t7e present s;enario( su;7 ;riti;al parameter of 8usiness su;;ess is often ;ompromised wit7 outages ;aused 8: arious fa;tors su;7 as e>uipment fault( transmission media fault( s7utting down t7e 8ase station during low traffi; periods and 8ase station power off due to diesel fuel s;ar;it:. +7e pro8lem of inade>uate grid suppl: e@perien;ed at tele;ommuni;ation installations in Manipur are 8eing resoled 8: diesel generators. Ele;tri;al grid distri8utions to some e@tent and diesel generators in general are t7e sour;es of energ: at t7e 8ase stations in Manipur. +7erefore( proper management of diesel fuel for effe;tie utiliAation and a;7ieing ma@imum networ4 aaila8ilit: 7as 8e;ome a ;7allenging tas4 to 8e dealt wit7 a well t7oug7t out pro;ess( as diesel is t7e onl: relia8le and dependa8le sour;e of energ: in t7e ;onte@t of tele;om industr: in Manipur. $   %iterature review and research conceptuali&ation $ ! %iterature review and problem definition +7e dependen;: on wireless networ4 for dail: ;ommuni;ation is in;reasing in a fastest growing rate. ;;ording to +ele;om egulator: ut7orit: of India eport 2011-12 ( t7e wireless su8s;ri8er 8ase in India was 919.1* million as on $1 st  Mar;7 2012 in ;omparison to t7e su8s;ri8er 8ase of #11.59 million as on $1 st  Mar;7 2011. It added 10*.5# million su8s;ri8ers in t7e finan;ial :ear 2011-12. +7e total su8s;ri8er 8ase in Mar;7 200* was 1'5.11 million. it7 t7e in;rease on dependa8ilit:( t7ere is demand for ma@imum networ4 aaila8ilit:. Networ4 aaila8ilit: is regarded as a ital feature for 8usiness su;;ess of t7e wireless tele;om seri;e proiders. It is one of t7e most important measures in t7e relia8ilit: of t7e wireless networ4( w7i;7 is t7e pro8a8ilit: t7at t7e networ4 will not malfun;tion or fail wit7in a spe;ified period. +7e relia8ilit: is a uni>ue >ualit: of wireless networ4 t7at alues t7e networ4 and users pa: premium for it. +7erefore( studies on relia8ilit: issue of t7e wireless networ4 at par wit7 t7e wire-line 7ae 8e;ome a ;on;ern of t7e tele;om management. +7e 7ig7er t7e aaila8ilit: of t7e wireless networ4 t7e 8etter is in redu;ing su8s;ri8ersC ;7urn rate from t7e relia8ilit:  perspe;tie. !ower suppl: is one of t7e ;riti;al ;7allenges ;onfronted 8: tele;ommuni;ation operators in deplo:ing t7eir networ4s Dni and Emetu( 201$. +7e aaila8ilit: of t7e wireless networ4 is largel: depended on ade>uate  European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 !aper ISSN 2222-2#$9 %nline &ol.'( No.2#( 201) 2# aaila8ilit: of energ: at t7e 8ase stations. +7e 8ase station sites of man: ;ountries worldwide fa;e t7e pro8lem of unrelia8le ele;tri;al grid suppl:. For instan;e( irtel Nigeria reports t7at non-aaila8ilit: of regular grid  power suppl: to sites a;ross t7e ;ountr: is responsi8le for oer seent: per;ent of down time( resulting in poor GoS Dni and Emetu( 201$. +7e grid power aaila8ilit: at 8ase stations in India is also not sound. %n aerage( seent: per;ent of t7e appro@imatel: )(00(000 mo8ile towers in India fa;e ele;tri;al grid outages in e@;ess of # 7ours a da: DIntelligent Engerg:( 2012. In t7e ;onte@t of Manipur( t7e grid power suppl: is e@perien;ing an a;ute s7ortage. %n aerage t7e power aaila8ilit: is wit7in four to si@ 7ours a da: alt7oug7 t7e E;onomi; Sure: Manipur 2010-11( 3oernment of Manipur reported t7at t7e state 7ad e@perien;ed a s7ortfall of '0 Megawatts M w7en demand was 1*0 M in t7e :ear 2009-10 indi;ating power outage of appro@imatel: nine 7ours a da:. +7is grid power s;ar;it: in Manipur is a ;ommon issue of all tele;om seri;e proiders and in addition( t7e ele;tri;al grid distri8ution s:stem 7as not rea;7ed man: 8ase station sites. +7e diesel generators ;onsume relatiel: 7ig7 amount of diesel fuel and re>uire 7ig7 leel of maintenan;e wor4. s a result( diesel generators in;ur 7ig7 operating e@penses. In addition( t7e total mont7l: ;as7 outflow is also influen;ed 8: ot7er s;enarios su;7 as fuel losses( diesel pilferage. +7e fuel losses in;luding diesel pilferage are estimated to 8e 15 to 20  per;ent of t7e total diesel fuel ;onsumed DIntelligent Energ:( 2012. In order to minimiAe input ;ost of t7e diesel fuel( man: seri;e proiders adopt different approa;7es. t t7e networ4 leel( one of t7e most important approa;7es for redu;ing energ: ;onsumption is d:nami; management of networ4 resour;es( w7i;7 allows s7utting down of entire 8ase stations during a low traffi; load Josip et al.( 2012 . Mo4lesur 2009 asserts( Ht7e: also proposed to redu;e t7e num8ers of some a;tie dei;es during low traffi; su;7 as nig7ttime and wee4end da:( t7en it is more possi8le to sae energ: as ;ited in Emerson . $ $   'esearch conceptuali&ation +7ere is intense ;ompetition in wireless tele;om se;tor in Manipur sin;e t7is se;tor is t7e onl: 8usiness area of all priate tele;om seri;e proiders operating in Manipur. +7e pu8li; se;tor tele;om ;ompan:( B7arat San;7ar  Nigam 6imited( BSN6 is a multi-seri;e proider w7i;7 operates in Manipur wit7 seri;es su;7 as wire-line( wire-line 8road8and internet( leased line( and wireless 8ased tele;om seri;es. s per annual finan;ial report 2011-12 of BSN6 Manipur( seent:-t7ree per;ent of t7e total reenue of BSN6 Manipur is from its wireless seri;es. +7is indi;ates t7at t7e suria8ilit: and sustenan;e of all t7e tele;om seri;e proiders in;luding BSN6 in Manipur is depended on t7e wireless seri;e se;tor. Sample primar: data o8tained from mo8ile swit;7ing ;enter and 8ase station sites of BSN6 Manipur reeal t7at inade>uate energ: at t7e 8ase stations is t7e ma?or ;ause of networ4 outage as it o;;upies appro@imatel: si@t: per;ent of t7e total networ4 outage 7ours. In t7e suppl: ;7ain s:stem of diesel fuel of t7e networ4( a t7ird part: re;eies t7e fuel and runs t7e diesel generator. +7e first part: is t7e tele;om operator and t7e se;ond part: is anot7er endor to w7om t7e responsi8ilit: of distri8ution of t7e fuel is outsour;ed. In BSN6( t7e distri8ution of t7e diesel fuel is done 8: its own staffs. Normall:( diesel fuel loss and pilferage 7appen in t7e suppl: ;7ain. +7e energ: o8tained from diesel fuel is ;omparatiel: mu;7 ;ostlier t7an t7e energ: o8tained from t7e grid. +7ere are ;onsidera8le papers( w7i;7 attempted to redu;e fuel ;onsumption at t7e 8ase station sites. Some papers dis;ussed t7e te;7ni;al aspe;ts in;luding t7e ;omponents of t7e e>uipments and some dis;ussed on t7e aspe;t of energ: ;onsumption 8ased on t7e intensit: of t7e traffi; loading. Josip et al.( 2012 asserts( Hgenerall:( it is assumed t7at t7e traffi; load ariations 7ae small influen;e on t7e power ;onsumption of 8ase stations as ;ited in Blume et al. 2010 and ris7nama;7ari et al. 2011 . In a t:pi;al 8ase station site( one or more 8ase-trans;eiers B+Ss of similar or different power ratings e@ist.  8ase station site installed wit7 four B+Ss 8ut wor4ing wit7 onl: two B+Ss during a time of one 7our will 7ae less energ: ;onsumption t7an t7e 7our during w7i;7 t7e site runs wit7 all t7e four 8ase-trans;eiers. +7is paper attempts to ma@imiAe t7e networ4 aaila8ilit: of t7e 8ase stations using energ: ;onsered in t7e 8atter:-8an4 effe;tiel:. eengineering pro;ess ;an 8e pra;ti;ed een at t7e 8ottom line leel of t7e ;ompanies for 8etter performan;e and produ;tiit: Meetei and Sing7( 201$ . +7is wor4 is primaril:  8ased on t7e pro;ess and do not go mu;7 insig7t into t7e te;7ni;al aspe;ts. In some organiAations( t7ere ma: 8e  plent: of resour;es and te;7nologies 8ut due to improper utiliAation of t7e resour;es( t7e: ma: fa;e waiting and wasting time( w7i;7 will ultimatel: affe;t t7e produ;tiit: Meetei and Sing7( 201$ . !roper utiliAation of t7e internal resour;e is a wa: to improe produ;tiit: and 7en;e emp7asis is gien to e@plore t7e potential resour;es( su;7 as ;onsered energ: of t7e 8atter: 8an4 and networ4 outage data generated 8: t7e swit;7ing s:stem. In t7is wor4( we adopt linear power ;onsumption model and presents a >uantitatie approa;7 for measurement and estimation of diesel fuel ;onsumption 8ased on uptime 7ours of t7e 8ase trans;eiers e>uipments( wire-line e>uipments and ot7er asso;iated e>uipments 7oused at t7e 8ase station sites. +7is model w7ile presenting a new  perspe;tie of management of fuel ;onsumption wit7 an attempt to redu;e waste su;7 as fuel losses and  pilferages( it also introdu;es a fa;tor ;alled energ: ;onseration fa;tor. +7is fa;tor is li4e performan;e indi;ator of t7e site in terms of energ: and used to determine amount energ: transfer to t7e 8atter: w7ile ;7arging t7e  European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 !aper ISSN 2222-2#$9 %nline &ol.'( No.2#( 201) 29  8atter: wit7 an e@ternal sour;e of power. (   Modeling and data collection   ( !   Mathematical model for energy consumption  %ne or more 8ase trans;eier stations B+Ss and ot7er asso;iated e>uipments are 7oused in t7e 8ase station site. +o ensure power aaila8ilit: of more t7an 99.95 per;ent( t7e tower owners 8a;4up t7e ele;tri;al grid wit7 a ;om8ination of 8atteries and diesel generator. +7e tele;om seri;e proider or infra-seri;e proider install diesel generators of *.5 4& to '$ 4& ;apa;it: and supplement it wit7 8atter: 8an4s of ar:ing ;apa;ities. +7e diesel generator and 8atter: 8an4 ;onfigurations are de;ided 8ased on t7e power outage pattern( e>uipment at t7e site( geograp7i;al lo;ation( optimal /!EK ;apital e@penses and %!EK operating e@penses e;onomi;s DIntelligent Energ:( 2012.   Batter: Ban4   Battery Ban) *ireless %oad #nfra+ %oad 2$0& / 2$0& / +ower !I SM!S !ower !lant iMK   $3 B+S 23 B+S +ransmission E>uipment 6andline E@;7ange - )#& / MS   /M B+S Figure 1<  t:pi;al 8ase station site of BSN6 +7e !ower Interfa;e nit !I sele;ts t7e 8est p7ase of t7e $ p7ase ele;tri;al grid and proides power to t7e re;tifier or swit;7ed mode power suppl: SM!S . +7e SM!S ;onerts t7e 220 &/ to -)# & / proiding  power to t7e tele;om tower e>uipment and additionall:( to ;7arge t7e 8atteries DIntelligent Energ:( 2012. If t7e grid power is interrupted( t7e 8atteries proide t7e power to t7e tele;ommuni;ation e>uipment during t7e transition period of suppl: from t7e diesel generator. +7e e>uipments at t7e 8ase stations t7erefore get power from t7ree sour;es iA. ele;tri;al grid( 8atter:-8an4 and diesel generator.  mat7emati;al model deeloped for estimation of total energ: ;onsumption 8: t7e e>uipments at t7e 8ase station sites is des;ri8ed 8elow. In t7is stud:( data o8tained from 8ase station sites of BSN6 are used in designing mat7emati;al model for energ: ;onsumption.  t:pi;al 8ase station site of BSN6 is s7own in Figure 1. It ;onsists of two or more tele;om e>uipments( w7i;7 ;an 8e grouped into two namel: wireless wireless load and non-wireless infra-load 8ased e>uipments. +7e wireless te;7nologies deplo:ed in BSN6 networ4 ;onsist of 8ase trans;eier stations of a se;ond generation-23 and t7ird generation-$3 3SM 3lo8al S:stem for Mo8ile /ommuni;ation ( 8 /M /ode iision Multiple ;;ess and ; iMK orldwide Interopera8ilit: for Mi;rowae ;;ess . %ne or more su;7 B+S form t7e wireless e>uipment group w7ile t7e non-wireless group is represented 8: group of e>uipments su;7 as wire-line e@;7ange( transmission e>uipments and ot7er au@iliar: e>uipments li4e / to / ;onerter. +7e power suppl: to 8ot7 t7e groups is / -)#& / . For t7e ;onenien;e purpose( t7e / ;urrent in mpere drawn 8: t7e e>uipments in one 7our is ta4en as power ;onsumption and energ: ;onsumption is e@pressed as mpere-,our , . +7e unit of a;tual power ;onsumption is & &olt-mpere or atts( t7erefore( t7e a;tual alue of t7e power ;onsumption is o8tained 8: multipl:ing t7e alues of power ;onsumption e@pressed in mpere  8: a ;onstant / oltage of )#&. Similarl:( a;tual energ: ;onsumption is o8tained 8: multipl:ing t7e alues of t7e energ: ;onsumption e@pressed in mpere-,our , 8: a ;onstant / oltage of )#&. +7e total power ;onsumption of t7e e>uipments at t7e site is ealuated using t7e following  European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 !aper ISSN 2222-2#$9 %nline &ol.'( No.2#( 201) $0 e>uations. It is assumed t7at t7e 8ase trans;eiers and asso;iated e>uipments of t7e site are in t7e %N states during t7e period w7en t7e station gets power eit7er from diesel generator or from grid distri8ution. e 7ae e@perien;ed t7at er: often man: B+Ss are in %FF state w7en t7e B+Ss are running wit7 8a;4-up energ: from t7e 8atter: 8an4. Total power consumption, P  SITE    < P SI+E  - P 6%   . P INF. L $.1 where,    P  WLOAD = 2Gi + P  G + P  !D A + P  WI A#  P   I$%&A  = T&A$S'  + P   (ASI!    ! 23(  ! $3( ! /M( ! IMK( ! +.NS( and ! BSI/  are alues of t7e aerage power ;onsumption 8: t7e 23 B+S( $3 B+S( /M B+S( iMa@( +ransmission e>uipments and 6andline e@;7ange respe;tiel: n represents num8ers of 23 B+S( m  represents no. of transmission e>uipment. +7e power ;onsumption rates of t7e indiidual e>uipments are t7e aerage power ;onsumption rates o8tained from t7e alues des;ri8ed in t7e +e;7ni;al !rodu;t es;ription of t7e produ;ts and a;tual measurements.  (ac)up *actor,    - /  L $.2 where,  ! !!M is power suppl: ;apa;it: in mps of t7e indiidual SM!S swit;7ed mode power suppl: modules and q  is t7e no. of SM!S modules.  ρ   is a energ: ;onseration fa;tor w7i;7 7as alue wit7in t7e range of 10 to 100( t7e details of w7i;7 is e@plained in se;tion $.2.  Ener-. o/taine0 *rom -ri0 power suppl., E   ELE!T     in , < E E6E/+   - 0P SI+E   t E6E/+ 1 . 2 P SI+E   t E6E/+   O   L $.$ where,  t E6E/+  is t7e total 7ours of grid power aaila8ilit:. In t7e eent of low oltage( sometimes( 8atter: ;7arging is not possi8le. In t7is ;ondition alue of O is 0( ot7erwise O P 1. Total ener-. consumption, E  SITE   in ,  E SI+E   - P IMK   t IMK   . P $3  t $3   . 23i t 23   . P /M   t /M   . P INF. t INF.   L $.) where , t IMK( t $3(  t /M(  t 23 and t INF.  are total uptime 7ours of iMa@( $3-B+S( /M-B+S( 23-B+S and landline e@;7angeQtransmission e>uipment respe;tiel:. It is assumed t7at landline e@;7ange is in t7e  O$ state for 2) 7ours and a;;ordingl: site aaila8ilit: is ta4en as 2) 7ours in ;al;ulation of infra energ: ;onsumption. If landline e@;7ange does not e@ist at t7e site( t7en uptime aaila8ilit: of an: wireless B+S at t7e time interal is treated as aaila8ilit: of t7e site in ;a;ulation of infra energ: ;onsumption.  Ener-. o/taine0 *rom Diesel Generator, E   DG < E 3  P L $.5 if E 3 R0( E 3 P 0  DG run hour, t   DG  t 3 - L $.'   Total 0iesel *uel consumption, F  SITE  <   F SI+E P t 3   F 3 L $.* where,  F 3  is t7e 7ourl: diesel fuel ;onsumption rate in litres of t7e diesel generator o8tained from t7e te;7ni;al produ;t spe;ifi;ation of t7e diesel generator and a;tual measurement done at t7e site. ( $   Energy conservation factor3 4  7en 8atter: is ;7arged under float ;ondition t7roug7 SM!S( some amount of energ: is transferred from t7e e@ternal sour;e sa: grid or diesel generator to t7e 8atter:-8an4 and t7e energ: is ;onsered t7ere. In t7is model( t7e amount of energ: transfer is determined 8: a fa;tor ;alled ;onseration fa;tor( w7i;7 7as alue 8etween 10 to 100. +7e alue of t7is fa;tor depends on t7e 7ealt7 and ;apa;it: of t7e 8atter: 8an4 and ;apa;it: of t7e power  plant. +7ese alues are estimated from t7e data o8tained from e@periments ;ondu;ted at t7e sites in ;onne;tion wit7 t7e empiri;al stud: as illustrated 8elow. If F SI+E  is t7e a;tual fuel ;onsumption for t7e uptime 7ours of t7e e>uipments of t7e site( t7en t 3  P L $.# where ( t 3 is t7e 3 run 7our and F 3  diesel ;onsumption rate of t7e diesel generator( 3. From e>uation $.'< E 3  P t 3  ! SI+E  L $.9

Companion Sample

Jul 25, 2017
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