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Physics IA Finale

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    PHYSICS IA  –  Nish Dedhia 11A Personal Engagement  –  Cycling is the use of a bicycle for transport, recreation, or sport. Cycling can be enjoyed by almost everyone, regardless of their age or your physical ability. Cycling is a very effective form of exercise. Cycling has always been one of my favourite hobbies since childhood because it is known to reduce stress and help you stay active. I have always wondered about the thrill and excitement I experience when I travel downhill as compared to travelling on a flat surface. The relationship between the steepness of the hill and the final speed while travelling downhill has always evoked a sense of curiosity in my mind. Research Question  –  How the final speed of an object/ball varies with the height of an inclined plane? Hypothesis  –  The greater the height of the inclined plane, the higher the final speed of the object. It is also hypothesised that as the angle of the inclined plane increases, the speed of the object will also increase which results in shorter time for the car to travel down the ramp. Theory  –  Potential energy is stored energy and the energy of position —  gravitational energy. Gravitational Energy is energy stored in an object's height. The higher and heavier the object, the more gravitational energy is stored. Kinetic Energy is energy stored in the movement of objects. The faster they travel, the more energy is stored. VARIABLES Dependent Variables  –  Final speed at which the object hits the ground. The final speed of the object will be found using the equation -> Independent Variables  –  The angle of inclination of the plane Constants  –  Object - block Ramp (Surface) Distance of the Ramp  –  (Start & End Point same)  Air Speed    MATERIALS  –  1. Stand  –  To hold the ramp and to increase/decrease its height 2. Inclined Plane/Ramp - For the object to slide down (Eg. Ruler) 3. Stop watch - to time the object (start - finish) 4. Measurements tape - to measure out the fixed distance the object will travel over the ramp 5. Protractor  –  to measure the angle between the inclined plane and the surface 6. Marker - To mark the start point and end line or point Fig. 1   PROCEDURE 1. Setting the apparatus as shown in Fig. 1     2. Calculate the angle of inclination using the protractor between the surface and ruler and record it in the table 3. Place the object at the start point on the inclined plane 4. Release the object with no extra force and simultaneously start the stop watch 5. Press the stop button when the object reaches the end point or when the front of the object touches the surface 6. Record the time taken for the object to reach the end point 7. Construct a table with the values of the time taken, next to the relevant height. 8. Repeat from step 2, 2 times to obtain 3 results for the same height. 9. Calculate the Average Time in the table. 10. Calculate the Final Speed using the equation ->    11. Re-adjust the inclined plane with a greater height and repeat the same steps Table  –  Height of the Ramp (m)   Angle of Inclined Plane (degrees)   Trial 1 (s)   Trial 2 (s)   Trial 3 (s)   Avg. Time (s)   Final (m/s)     The experiment will be conducted under lab conditions and along with lab equipment. Therefore, the uncertainties have been determined on the basis of lab equipment available. The first assumption we make is that the frictional force between the inclined plane and block would be almost negligible since both the surfaces are extremely smooth, therefore implying how no work Is done by the frictional force. Frictionless block  –  The block can only accelerate in the direction along the plane. The net force in the forward direction will be mass*acceleration and the net forces in the y-direction will be zero since the Normal Force = Vertical component of the weight and hence the block is at rest. The only force acting towards the x direction is a component of the gravitational force. This means that the forces in the x-direction will be:    Gravity gives potential energy to the object whereas kinetic energy of an object depends only upon its mass and its speed. The formula for potential energy due to gravity is PE  = mgh  and KE =1/2*m*v*v  . Therefore, the higher an object goes the more gravitational potential energy it gains. When it falls, its potential energy is converted into kinetic energy and since the law of conservation of energy states that energy can neither be created or destroyed, it can only be converted. Therefore, the object will move at a faster speed since the difference in potential energy is equal to the difference in kinetic energy. Therefore, the equation for the final speed of the object is -> The value of u=0 since the object is initially at rest and hence the initial velocity=0 FRICTION BLOCK The frictional force is the force that prevents the disk from slipping. However, not all the potential energy is converted into kinetic energy in this case, as some of this energy is lost as heat from the friction between the ramp and the object as the object goes down the ramp and sound as it travels through the inclined plane. In this scenario we will consider that the object slides without slipping, hence the frictional force will be a static friction force. Here μ s  is the coefficient of static friction. When the angle of inclination of the ramp is small, the force of friction between the object and the ramp has greater potential to prevent the object from moving. When an object rests on a surface like the ramp, the ramp exerts a perpendicular force from the ramp called ‘ normal force ’  on the object, this force is greater when the angle of inclination is smaller. This happens due to the force of gravity on the object that is be split between horizontal and vertical components. Therefore, when the ramp is steep, the force of gravity can more easily overcome the force of friction and hence gravity will cause the object on an incline to move down the slope faster than a flat slope. The steeper the ramp the larger the amount of the sliding force. When the ramp is vertical the sliding component and equals the weight force.

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Sep 22, 2019
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