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Pottery production at the service of the necropolis. On a peri-urban kiln in the Republican Gades (Cadiz, Spain) (2010)

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This paper presents a small pottery kiln found during the course of a preventive archaeological intervention on c/Troilo Nº 5 in the Santa Maria district (the historic centre of Cadiz, Spain). The structure appeared in isolation, filled to the brim
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  REI CRETARI,€,ROMAN,IE FAVTORVMACTA 4I. 2OIO Ana Marfa Niveaude VilledaryyMariflastPOTTERYPRODUCTION ATTHESERVICE OFTHENECROPOLIS On a suburbankiln in republicanGadesCadiz,Spain) IntroductionIn recentyears,one of the most importantarchaeologicalnovelties inCadiz has been thedocumentation of a densecluster ofpotteryworkshopson the third islandof thepalaeoarchipelagoknown in sourcesas Antipolis(today'sSan Fernando)2, hich,in the lightof thesediscoveries,forms the"potterydistrict" of ancientGadir. ln contrast odocumentation romSanFernando'sndustrialquarter,thevestigesound in thecity of Cadiz(fig.1)on the northernend of the islandof Kotinussaarefewandpartial, yetnotwholly unknown3.This paper presentsa smallpotterykiln foundduringthe course of apreventivearchaeological nterventionon c/Troilo N"5inthe SantaMariadistrict(thehistoric centreofCadiz, Spain). The structureappeared n isolation,filled tothe brim with ceramic materials.This lattercircumstanceallowsus to situatepottery productionin the immediate vi-cinity of the city of Cadizat a time of transitionbetween hePunicandRomanworlds.This late Punickiln collapsed withthe last firing inside.The materialsare virtually limitedto two typesofRomanceramics:he bowl-like lidsused to cover cineraryurns inthe necropoleisof Cadiz and a kindof massive "tumbler"whoseexact functionalityis not known. Anothersmallergroupof ceramicswasfound in apitlocatedat the mouthofthepraefurnium,whichhasbeen nterpretedasa small dumpwhere ruined or rejectedpiecesand the ashesand remainsfromkiln cleaning weredeposited.Thisgroupfeatured sev-eral terracotta specimenspertainingto thymiateriashapedlike women'sheads and zoomorphicaskoi, inaddition todifferent types ofcommon Romanceramicplatters,urnsandpots.Both the lastmaterialsproducedin the kilnaswellasthose rom earlierfirings reveala coroplastic and vasepro-ductionthat we suggest srelated oand specialized nsup-plyingthe neighbouringnecropolis withthe items requiredfor conducting funeralritesand worshipa.The kilnstructure(fig.2)The small kiln wasabandonedwhenthe upperstructurescollapsedwith the last firing,whichconsistedof smallce-ramic vases,nside.The kiln appeared n the cross-section hat separated hesite from the adjacentproperty.Despite all efforts, only halfthe structurecould be excavated, ince he rest ay beneathaRoman wall froma aterperiodthat n turn traversed t, whilethe opposite side had been affected byaRomantrench thatalso dates roma subsequenteriods.The walls and baseofthe kiln's foundation were madeofthe naturalgreenishime-stone clay soil itself. Both the upperpartof the combustionchamber aswellas the firing chamber havebeenlost,al-though in the rear of the combustionchamber,partof thearchesof thevault, which wouldhave supported he floor,has beenpreserved.The classicplano-convexadobe con-struction materials documented n other similar structureswereused6.Excavationsevealeda kind of triangularpitconnectedto one end of thepraefurnium,which wasused as a dumpfor accumulating lawed orpoorlyfired ceramics hat werediscarded etween ayersofash.Theplanof the kiln is sub-quadrangular,with roundedends.The front of the combustion chamber s, in fact,apro-longation of the narrow passageorpraefurnium,whichmeasuresslightly over one metre longby 23 cmwideanddescends ike a ramp to the centre of the chamber.Herestandsthepartiallydestroyedcentralpillar,made up of six roundclay bricksor drums, somewhatwarpedby high tempera-tures.The floor rises abruptly at the centralpillar,formingastep roughly 2l cm high. Thisparticularconstruction fea-ture has made tpossibleo identify and describea new ty-pologicalcategory,kilns"withapraefurniumwith a step",which would be typical ofthisgeographicalzone7.This in-novationhas been explained as a functional improvement I"Ram6nyCajal"Researcher,epartmentof History, Geography&Philosophy,niversityof Cadiz.Av.G6mezUlla s/n. 11003CridizSpain).E-mail: anamaria.niveau@uca.es2BrrullrLEr AL.2003passim.D. Bp$rer sr AL.,CartaArqueol6gicaMunicipal.SanFernandoSevilla,005)passim.J.Rrv6N rral., El taller alfareroardoarcaico e CamposotoSanFernando,C6diz)Sevilla,007)passim.SAsz 008passim.3SAEz 008,480-500.oNrvsnu or Vtlronny/Br-rNco 2007passim.5Blexco 1999,8.oBEnNnL-r,c,L.003 igs. 3I,I; 34;35.-SAEz r l:-.2OO4,O2.7BrmeLer Ar. 2003, 194-195.-D. Bpnr.rar--r er-.,Los hornosprinicosepraefumiumscalonadoss.IIyII a.C.).Reflexionesaraizdel alfarde La MilagrosaSanFernando,C6diz). n: BernaULag6stena2004, l.607420. 463  Are Menie Nwpeu oe Vu-r-sDARy Mmnils Fig. 1. Geographiccontextualization andsitelocation. AfterBrnr,rAL/Srz20f,8,frg.2.that enabled he heato collectinthe rear of the kiln. Alongwith other modifications,such as the reducedsize of thestructure, his featureallowed the heat to circulate through-out all thezonesbetter, hus mproving itsgeneral yields.Achronology forthis type of kiln hasbeenproposedorroughlythelatethird to early secondcenturiesBCe,relatedtothePhoenician-Punicotteryradition, naccordancewiththe documented materials in islandkilns which defrnethetype.Inshort, the structure derives froma typology that waswell-known inthe Bay ofCadizin latePunic times,possi-bly with severalRoman nnovations(including,perhaps,hequadrangularshape). n any case,we feelthe conservativenature of the structure needs obe emphasized.VaseproductionMost of the ceramicartefactswere discovered ntwo well-definedzonesamong copious amountsofash and heplano-convex adobe remainspertainingto the collapsed upperstructures.Inthefrstplace,most of the objects(1,678),whichcor-responded o the lasttypes the kilnproduced(fig.3), werefound intherearof the combustionchamber and theunc-tion with thepraefurnizm.Almost allof them(92Vo)cone-spond to themanufactureof twoconcrete ypes of ceram-ics: bowl-like lids(1,313pieces,78Vo)and the truncatedcone containerswehave denominatedumblers(242speci-mens, 4%o).Other shapes ppear nsmallerquantities:sev-eral sizes of bifid-rimmed potswithdifferentprofiles(27.2Vo),mall ids(56.3Vo)nd several solatederracotta464sherdsand figurative askoi(l%o).Also figuringprominentlyare two elongated,cylindrical ceramic tems(fig.4),whichwe have nterpretedas separators hat would have beenplacedbetween the vasesopreventthem fromcomingintocon-tact with each other during firing,and some shapeless laypellets.In tle secondplace,we alsoexcavatedagroupof ce-ramics, although slightly fewer in number(87items), fromthedump at themouthof thepraefurnium.Theformal vari-ety ofthese objects(fig.5)isgreaterhan thosenthekilnchamber,whichsupportsour functional interpretationof thestructure.Weassume hat the materials n thispitcame romthe kiln, apossibilitysupported by the significant docu-mented levelof ash thatwouldhave corresponded o thechamber's cyclical cleaning, the location itself ofthe dumpconnected o thepraefurniumand thepresenceof severalclaypelletsamong the materials recovered.The most nu-merousobjects nthis casewereterracottasherdsbelongingto thymiateria shaped ike women's heads(figs.6-7),zoomorphicaskoi(fig.8) (28fragments,32Voof the entireproduction)and small id shapes29units,33%).These ypeswere presentamong the combustion chamber material, al-though there wereslightlyfewerof them withrespecttomostproductions,which is why wecan assume hat theyhadbeenmanufacturedbefore this last or last few firings.However, from thechronologicalpointofview, wedidnotfindanoticeabledisparity and thus, they must havebeentB"**-*.2003,2OO.'Ibid. 200.-A.M. SApz,El alfar tardoprinico e TorreAlta.Resultadose asexcavacionese2OO2-03.n: Bemal/Las6stena 2004.IJ705. tI*"^, ;'m  Fig. 2.(a)Groundplanandelevationof the kiln fromC/Troilo.-(b)Detail of thestructure after excavation.(Drawingsandphotographs:FranciscoJ.BlancoJim6nez). PorrenvpRoDUcIoNAT TIIEsERvIcEoF THE NEcRopoLIs Fig.3.Vases romthe combustion chamber hat correspond othelast firingproducednthekiln(US8). I"Tumbler";2-3bowl-like ledged ids;4 small id; 5bifid-rimmedpot;6pot.-Scale :4(Drawingsby the author). -% % % % Fig. 4.Clay separators rom the interiorof the combustionchamberUS8). - Scale 1:4(Drawingsby the author). re .i/ W---/ ,= g.i/ '%L:,/ gT\mML\=-,W I r @z@AL/ 465  AN,c.MARie Nrw,q.uor Vu-I-loenvv MnnNls vLta zt\ d4?'L:- M> ffi  - /I\W yl\ ry Fig. 5. Vase shapesound in thefrll of thepitattachedo thepraefurnium,discardedmaterialsandmaterials usedbypotters(USl1).I "Tumbler";2-3 bowl-like ledgedids; 4lid with a centralknob;5 smallid;6mortar;7-8 urns; 9ug.-Scale:4(Drawingsby the author). 466 Fig. 6.Thymiateria shapedike women's headrom Group 1.(Drawingsandphotographsby the author)  F--- = ffi:^=?-(-7--_---J--.. \,i-G\qtf,1pt"''c ry\trw 5:ry {;3 r-:-) di---<hfifrl(\ U's-\q*Yqflq \lVv/ Fig. 7.Thyrniateria from Group 2.(Drawingsandphotographsby the author) PorrsRvpRoDUcrIoNAT TltE sERvrcEoF TrIE NEcRopolrs Fig. 8.Zmmorphicasftoi.A Mufloz ypeA;B Mufroz$peB; C Asl<osn a"realistic" style.Drawingsndphotographsytheauthor) N B ffifr % $+# 467
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