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Essential English
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  PEN0055 Essential English Reading & Vocabulary PEN 0055Essential English ONLINE NOTESReading and Vocabulary  __________________________________________________________________________________  05   Learning Institute for Empowerment (LiFE)  PEN0055 Essential English Reading & Vocabulary EXTENDING AND DEVELOPING VOCA!LA # IN CONTEXT Contextual clues !onte tual clues are surrounding #ords$ %hrases$ sentences$ ideas$ and eents that hel%you arrie at the 'eanings o( un(a'iliar #ords) It*s %ossible to get the 'eaning o( certain#ords by analysing the conte t in #hich they a%%ear) +o#eer$ do re'e'ber that it is notal#ays %ossible to #or, out the e act 'eaning o( a #ord (ro' the te t and the te t 'aynot contain su((icient clues to get the 'eaning o( a #ord) E$amp%eAfro&entri&it' $ or the study o( -(rican cultures$ hel%s social scientists to better understand hu'an behaiour).eaning/ study o( -(rican cultures  Exercise Give the meanings of the words in the bold print.  Early a%anese i''igrants to the 1nited States #ere called Issei .eaning/___________________________ * 2ender roles are no# beco'ing 'ore an+rog'nous ) 3or e a'%le$ it is no# %er(ectlyacce%table (or #o'en to %lay (ootball$ #or, as bus drier or study to be an engineer$as it is (or 'en to 'o% the (loor$ #or, as nurse or loo, a(ter the children) .eaning/___________________________ , 4abies are 'ore sus&epti-%e  to (ood allergies because their i''unity syste's and digestie tracts are i''ature but older children are less li,ely to su((er (ro' theseallergies as their body syste's are better deelo%ed).eaning/___________________________  . -n in/entor'  o( #ildli(e %o%ulation using high tech satellite e6ui%'ent sho#s thatthe %o%ulation o( tigers increased (ro' 7000 in the 80*s to 7500 in 7999$ and theele%hant %o%ulation (ro' :00 to ;00 in the sa'e %eriod).eaning/___________________________ 0 .any co'%oser < %ianists li,e 3ran= Li=st em-e%%is1e+  their 'usic as they %layedthat is they added notes and orna'ents as they %layed along).eaning/___________________________   __________________________________________________________________________________  75  PEN0055 Essential English Reading & Vocabulary DI2TING!I23ING 4AIN IDEA2 F O4 2!PPO TING DETAIL2A main i+ea or &ontro%%ing i+ea is the ,ey %oint or 'ost i'%ortant %oint a #riter is'a,ing is his  her %aragra%h or essay) It is nor'ally stated in the topi& senten&e ) 2upporting +etai%s  are 'ore s%eci(ic in(or'ation used to e %lain the 'ain idea o( a %aragra%h) DI2TING!I23ING FACT2 F O4 OPINION In order to distinguish a (act (ro' an o%inion/  read bet#een the lines to deter'ine #hat the #riter trying to %ut across  ealuate$ >udge$ and thin, dee%ly about the ideas and in(or'ation in the reading'aterials)?hat is a (act@  an eent$ a state or a relationshi% (or #hich reliable eidence can be (ound and #hichdoes not re6uire dee% inter%retation  a (actual state'ent that can be %roen correct or incorrect according to the eidencein the %assage)?hat is an o%inion@  an inter%retation o( eents #hich 'ay be true or (alse$ reliable or unreliable)  a reasonable in(erence (ro' (actual eidence) It re%resents a %ersonal inter%retationand bias and #hich 'ay not be su%%orted by eidence)  Example 7)Shahrul does not s%ea, to anyone) These are (actual state'entA)-ero(lot o((ers the lo#est (ares to the 1nited Bingdo')because reliable eidence canC)4alan receied the best student a#ard this year)obtained i( anyone #ants to  %roe #hether they are trueor not):).y teacher$ .rs) Bhoo$ is ,ind)These are o%inion because5) .ost restaurants li,e to e'%loy 'ale che(s) they re%resent a %erson*s;) !hildren should be seen and not heard) inter%retation) ?hether it is true or not)  __________________________________________________________________________________  A5  PEN0055 Essential English Reading & Vocabulary 4A5ING INFE ENCE2Inferen&ing  is a reading s,ill in #hich it is used in order to read bet#een the lines and touse the ,no#ledge and e %erience to co'e to an understanding o( #hat is hinted in thete t) In 'a,ing in(erences$ you hae to be care(ul not to go beyond the in(or'ationactually (ound in the te t) +o#eer$ although in(erences are based on in(or'ationaailable in the te t$ they the'seles are not (acts) To 'a,e an in(erence$ as, s%eci(ic6uestions about the general state'ent) This hel%s to clari(y the ,ey ideas and re(lect onthe #ords used in the ,ey ideas in order to co'e to an in(erence)  Example Read the (ollo#ing sentence) ?hat ,ind o( s%eci(ic 6uestions can you as,@-lthough 'any #o'en still #or, in traditional occu%ations$ an increasing nu'ber are in %ro(essional and cor%orate %ositions) 6uestions  ?hat ,ind o( traditional occu%ations do #o'en #or, in@  ?hat ,ind o( %ro(essional and cor%orate %ositions do #o'en hold@  ?hat %ercentages o( #o'en #or, in traditional occu%ations@  ?hat %ercentages o( #o'en hae %ro(essional and cor%orate %ositions@  -re there occu%ations #hich are traditionally 'ale do'inated@ ?hat are these@  ?hat ,ind o( %ro(essional and cor%orate %ositions do 'en hold@+aing thought about these 6uestions$ these in(erences can be 'ade/  .any #o'en still #or, as nurses$ secretaries$ teachers and house,ee%ers)  There are 'ore 'en than #o'en in %ro(essional and cor%orate %ositions)  In (uture$ there 'ight be as 'any #o'en as there are 'en in %ro(essional and cor%orate %ositions)E ercise 3or each state'ent$ #rite D Yes * i( you can in(er the in(or'ation or D  No * i( it cannot bein(erred) Proide reasons (or your ans#er)Social %sychologists hae t#o theories to e %lain #hy %eo%le li,e or disli,e each other$ a %heno'enon ,no#n as inter%ersonal attraction) The re#ard theory %ostulates thatinter%ersonal attraction is de%endent on the leel o( re#ards and %ositie (eelings #eassociate #ith a %erson*s behaiour) ust as are conditioned to li,e a %erson #hose behaiour arouses %ositie (eelings in us$ so #e disli,e so'eone #hose behaiour arouses negatie (eelings) The e6uity theory suggests that inter%ersonal attraction has asits basis balanced relationshi%) 1nderlying the satis(action a cou%le (eels in their relationshi% is the e6ual 'easure #hich each %erson gets and receies) Partners #ho (eel  __________________________________________________________________________________  C5
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