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  Proceedings THC-IT-2013 Conference & Exhibition  II-1 Effect of Oil Contamination and Temperature on the Resistivity of Drilling Mud Ahmed S. Mohammed 1  and C. Vipulanandan 2  and Richardson 3   Texas Hurricane Center for Innovative Technology University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-4003 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Tel: 713-743-4278: E-mail: asmohammed2@uh.edu   3 Program Manager- RPSEA, Sugar Land, Texas, 77478 Abstract  In this study, the changes in electrical resistivity of drilling mud with different percentage of bentonite up to 8% with and without oil spill contamination was investigated. Also the effect of temperature up to 85 o C on contaminated and uncontaminated drilling mud was studied. Drilling muds were contaminated up to 12% of oil (by total weight of drilling mud). The resistivity of contaminated and uncontaminated samples using were measured using the resistivity meter and conductivity meter probe. The results showed that the oil increased the resistivity of the drilling mud. Also the resistivity of uncontaminated and contaminated drilling muds decreased with increasing the temperature. The effect of oil-contamination on the resistivity of drilling mud was quantified. 1. Introduction Drilling muds are fluids used to control formation pressures, lubricate and cool the bit, remove rock fragments from the drilling well, and form a consolidated wall cake on the sides of the hole prior to casing. These muds, which are highly viscous, are complex formulations and include such finely divided materials as ground ilmenite, bentonite, various clays, barite, lead ore, fibers, hulls, etc. in a liquid medium which may be aqueous (e.g., water or brine) or an oil Goodarznia et al. (2006). There are several potential sources of oil leakage to the surrounding ecosystem through damaged pipeline, discharges from coastal facilities, offshore petroleum production and natural seepage. Improper management of used engine oil and illegal dumping of other hydrocarbon components could also contaminate the drilling mud . Oil spillage or leakage will contaminate the soil and water system. Oil contamination of the drilling mud could alter the rheological properties of oil-contaminated drilling mud (Gozalpour et al. 1998). 2. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oil contamination on the resistivity of drilling mud under different temperatures. 3. Materials and Methods In this study, four different percentages of bentonite (2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) were used. The resistivity of uncontaminated drilling mud was measured using the API resistivity meter and conductivity meter probe under varying of temperature up to 85 o C. Drilling muds were contaminated using different percentage of oil up to 12% (by total weight of drilling mud). Two different resistivity devices were used to measure the resistivity of contaminated and uncontaminated drilling mud. API resistivity meter accurately measures the resistivity of fluids, slurries, and semi-solids with resistivities from 0.01 to 400 Ohm-meters. Conductivity meter was also used to compare the results with conductivity from 0  –  19.99 µS; 20  –  199.9 µS/cm. Both of the devices were calibrated using standard solution of sodium chloride (NaCl). 4. Analysis and Discussion The resistivity of uncontaminated drilling mud was decreased by 34%, 54% and 69% when the bentonite content changed from 2% to 4%, 6% and 8% respectively. Additional of 3% of oil (by total weight of drilling mud) the resistivity increased for all the bentonite percentages. The resistivity of  Proceedings THC-IT-2013 Conference & Exhibition  II-2 uncontaminated 2% bentonite drilling mud decreased by 50% when the temperature changed from 25 o C to 85 o C. Based on the inspection of the test data for the properties investigated following relationships is proposed.        ................... (1) Where:  = resistivity of drilling mud contaminated with oil,  o  = resistivity of uncontaminated drilling mud, X= oil content (%), P and Q = model parameters. The model parameters were related to the test variables as follows:  P  or Q  M  L  B X   N   **     for      )2...(%.........0   X    Where: B= Bentonite content and N, L and M are model parameters. 5. Conclusions Based on this study on oil contaminated drilling mud, the resistivity of the drilling muds was increased  by 56%, 51%, 57% and 63% for drilling muds with 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% of bentonite and contaminated with 12% of oil respectively. For the uncontaminated 2% of drilling mud the resistivity decreased by 50% when the temperature was changed from 25 o C to 85 o C. 6. Acknowledgements This study was supported by the Center for Innovative Grouting Materials and Technology (CIGMAT), University of Houston, Houston, Texas with funding from DOE/NETL/RPSEA (Project 10121-4501-01). 7. References  1.   Gozalpour, F. and Heriot-Watt, U. (1998). Determination of Reservoir Fluid Properties from Samples Contaminated with Oil-Based Mud Filtrate SPE 52062-STU, pp.1-3. 2.   Goodarznia, I. and Esmaeilzadeh, F. (2006). Treatment of Oil-Contaminated Drill Cuttings of South Pars Gas Field in Iran Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Iranian Journal of Science & Technology, Transaction B, Engineering, Vol. 30, No. B5, pp. 607-611. P R Q R N 0.015 0.91 0.05 0.89 L -0.88 -0.01 M 3.1 0.9   0246810121416180 2 4 6 8 10 12 14    R   e   s   i   s   t   i   v   i   t   y ,    (   O    h   m  -   m    ) Oil (%) Bentonite=2% Bentonite=4% Bentonite=6%Bentonite=8% Model Table 1. Model Parameters for Oil Contaminated Drilling Mud (X %> 0) Figure 1. Relationship between Resistivity and Oil Content for various Drilling Muds   Figure 2. Temperature Effect on 2% Drilling Mud with Varying Amount of Contaminated Oil    Proceedings THC-IT-2013 Conference & Exhibition  II-3 Effect of Salt Contamination on the Fluid loss, Early Strength and Piezoresistive Response of Smart Oil Well Cement A. Zomorrodian 1 , C. Vipulanandan 1  and D. Richardson 2   1 Center for Innovative Grouting Material and Technology (CIGMAT) University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4003 Tel: 713-743-4278: E-mail: cvipulanandan@uh.edu  2 Program Manager  –   RPSEA, Sugar Land, Texas 77478 Abstract Effect of salt contamination on the oil well cement slurry was investigated at room temperature. Results showed that salt contamination increased the fluid loss, early compressive strength and also modified the  piezoresistive behavior of the oil well cement slurry. With 4% salt contamination, the initial resistivity of the cement slurry was reduced by over 80%. 1. Introduction Based on the location and zonal characteristics of the geological formation and/or during a hurricane, there is a potential for contamination of the cement with salt during installation. Hence there is a need to quantify the effect of salt contamination on the properties of oil well cement. This has led to many studies on evaluating the impacts of salt contamination on different properties of fresh and hardened oil well cement (Ismail et al 1993; Hunter 2010). Studies have shown the effect of salt contamination on the mechanical, free water, rheological and thickening properties of cement. Hence there is a need for better characterization the behavior of smart cement slurry contaminated with salt. 2. Objective The objectives of this study are to investigate effect of salt contamination on the slurry and hardened  properties of smart oil well cement with enhanced sensitivity properties. Also of interest was the early compressive strength and piezoresistive behavior of salt contaminated smart cement slurry. 3. Materials and Methods All specimens were mixed based on API 10-B standard, at room temperature. Different tests were  performed on rheological, fluid loss, mechanical and electrical properties of up to 4% salt contaminated modified cement slurries. Modified API fluid loss tests was performed at 100 psi at room temperature and filtrate liquid was collected and measured at 1 minute intervals, until the blow out. Mechanical  properties were evaluated by measuring the 24 hour compressive strength and the piezoresistivity of modified cement slurries. 4. Discussion and Results As shown in fig.1, increasing salt concentration from 1% to 4% increased the 24 hour compressive strength by 54% and 42%, respectively. Filtrate volume was increased up to 5% with the increasing the salt content. Tests indicated that increased salt content reduced the electrical resistivity. Cement electrical resistivity during the first 3 hours of curing was decreased up to 65% and 86%, with adding 1% and 4% salt content, respectively. Piezoresistivity behavior of hardened cement slurries are shown in Fig.2. Tests showed that increasing salt content to 1% increased the piezoresistivity property of hardened cement. 5. Conclusion Tests investigated the effect of salt contamination on the behavior of smart oil well cement. Due to salt contamination the electrical resistivity reduced. With 4% salt contamination the resistivity was reduced  by over 80%. The early compressive strength and piezoresistive behavior were enhanced by salt  Proceedings THC-IT-2013 Conference & Exhibition  II-4 contamination. The changes in resistivity at failure for cement without and with salt contamination were 1.5% and 6% respectively. 6. Acknowledgement This study was supported by the Center for Innovative Grouting Materials and Technology (CIGMAT) with funding from DOE/NETL/RPSEA (Project 10121-4501-01). 7. References Simao C. A., Miranda C.R., Vargas A.A., Pereira R. F. L., Santos R.L.L., Soares M.A.S., Conceicao A.C.F. (2010). Cementing in Front of Soluble Salt Zones, Society of Petroleum Engineers. Doi: 10.2118/145719-MS Ismail, S.A.A., Khalaf, F. (1993). Effectiveness of Low-Salt Cement Opposite Salt Bodies, Society of Petroleum Engineers. Doi: 10.2118/25542-MS Figure 1 – 24 hour compressive strength of class H cement slurries with salt concentration   Figure 2 -  Effect of salt on the piezoresistivity behavior of of hardened oil well cement 0% Salt, 769.54 1% Salt, 1186.41 4% Salt, 1094.87 0.00200.00400.00600.00800.001000.001200.001400.00    U    l   t   i   m   a   t   e   2   4    h   o   u   r   c   o   m   p   r   e   s   s   i   v   e   s   t   r   e   n   g   t    h    (   p   s   i    ) 0%Salt 0.00200.00400.00600.00800.001000.001200.001400.00-0.0100.010.020.030.040.050.060.07    C   o   m   p   r   e   s   s   i   v   e   s   t   r   e   s   s    (   p   s   i    ) Δ R/R0 0% Salt - 0.1% CF1%Salt-0.1%CF

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