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Simulation of a wind turbine

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wind turbine simulation using simulationx
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    MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF A WIND TURBINE  Project Report P.G.S.R.WIJETUNGA; K.G.R.M.JAYATHILAKE  11/17/2014  TABLE OF CONTENT 1.0 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................. 2  1.1   W IND TURBINE A ERODYNAMICS  ....................................................................................... 2 1.2   P OWER C URVE AND ROTOR SPEED CURVE  ......................................................................... 2 2.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT ............................................................................................... 3  2.1   D ESIGN PRAMETERS  .......................................................................................................... 4 2.1.1 Cut in wind speed (    ) .............................................................................................. 4   2.1.2 Rotor speed (     ) ..................................................................................................... 4   2.1.3 Rated wind speed (     ) ................................................................................................ 4   3.0 GEAR BOX DESIGN ........................................................................................................ 5   4.0 CONTROL STRATEGY .................................................................................................. 6  4.1   T ORQUE CONTROLLER   ....................................................................................................... 6 4.2   P ITCH CONTROLLER   ........................................................................................................... 7 5.0 RESULTS ........................................................................................................................... 8  5.1   R  AMP WIND PROFILE  ......................................................................................................... 8 5.2   S TEP WISE WIND PROFILE  ................................................................................................. 10 5.3   I MPULSE WIND PROFILE  ................................................................................................... 12 TABLE OF FIGURES F IGURE 1:   P OWER VS .  WIND SPEED CURVE  .................................................................................. 2 F IGURE 2:   R  OTOR SPEED VS W IND SPEED  .................................................................................... 3 F IGURE 3:   S IMULATION X  MODEL  ................................................................................................ 6 F IGURE 4:   S IMULATION X ANIMATION MODEL ............................................................................. 6 F IGURE 5:   B LOCK DIAGRAM OF THE TORQUE CONTROLLER   ......................................................... 7 F IGURE 6:   B LOCK DIAGRAM OF THE PITCH CONTROLLER   ............................................................ 8 F IGURE 7:   W IND SPEED VS T IME  ................................................................................................. 8 F IGURE 8:   G ENERATOR POWER VS .   T IME  .................................................................................... 8 F IGURE 9:  GENERATOR SPEED VS .   T IME  ...................................................................................... 9 F IGURE 10:   P ITCH ANGLE VS .   T IME  ............................................................................................. 9 F IGURE 11:   G ENERATOR TORQUE VS .   T IME  ................................................................................. 9 F IGURE 12:   W IND POWER VS .   T IME  ........................................................................................... 10 F IGURE 13:   W IND SPEED VS .   T IME  ............................................................................................ 10 F IGURE 14:   G ENERATOR POWER VS .   T IME  ................................................................................ 10 F IGURE 15:   W IND SPEED VS T IME  ............................................................................................. 11 F IGURE 16:   G ENERATOR TORQUE VS .   T IME  ............................................................................... 11 F IGURE 17:   P ITCH ANGLE VS .   T IME  ........................................................................................... 11 F IGURE 18:   W IND P OWER VS .   T IME  .......................................................................................... 12 F IGURE 19:   W IND S PEED VS .   T IME  ............................................................................................ 12 F IGURE 20:   G ENERATOR P OWER VS .   T IME  ................................................................................ 12 F IGURE 21:   G ENERATOR S PEED VS .   T IME  ................................................................................. 13 F IGURE 22:   G ENERATOR T ORQUE VS .   T IME  .............................................................................. 13 F IGURE 23:   P ITCH A  NGLE VS .   T IME  .......................................................................................... 13 F IGURE 24:   W IND P OWER VS .   T IME  .......................................................................................... 14  1.0 Introduction  Nowadays, the world is looking forward to various renewable energy forms. Among those, wind energy is more popular and the wind turbine farms construction is now a common fact. As the wind turbine technology getting advanced, design of powerful control systems is required to improve wind turbines behavior. There are mainly two types of wind turbines namely fixed speed and variable speed. Those two types can divided into two sub categories as fixed pitch and variable pitch. Here in this project the interest is on variable speed variable  pitch wind turbines. 1.1 Wind turbine Aerodynamics  The power extracted by the rotor is,          (1)   () ()    (2)      (3)    (4) R- Radius of the rotor θ - Pitch angle of the blades λ  - tip speed ratio ω - Rotor speed V t- tip speed u- Wind speed ρ - Density of air C  p-  power coefficient or wind turbine efficiency 1.2 Power Curve and rotor speed curve  Power curve specifies how much power can be extracted from the incoming wind. Figure 1 contains an ideal wind turbine power curve. Figure 2 contains the rotor speed curve. Figure 1: Power vs. wind speed curve    Figure 2: Rotor speed vs Wind speed Region I is the max-Cp region where the pitch angle is set to zero & the tip speed ratio is maintained at constant by varying the rotor speed. Cut in wind speed (u ci ) the wind speed where wind can’t generate a reasonable torque to rotate the turbine. Below that the turbine is at rest. Here torque is controlled to obtain the rated air power by varying the rotor speed. Region III is the maximum power region where turbine output power is kept at rated power. Cut out wind speed (u co ) is the maximum wind speed the turbine can generate power without any damage to the structure. Beyond that speed rotor is locked. In this region pitch is controlled to keep the turbine at rated power by maintaining a constant torque. Region II is the transition region between other two; here the maximum allowable tip speed is maintained. Region transits when the obtainable air power reaches rated value at rated wind speed (u r  ). 2.0 Problem statement  A wind turbine drive train has to be designed with some given parameters and it has to fulfill certain performance requirements according to the problem. Some of the main parameters are  been given. The wind turbine has a nominal power of 2 MW and has a blade radius of 35m. The maximum allowable tip speed is 60 ms -1 . The generator has a nominal power of 2.1 MW at a nominal speed of 1550 revmin -1 . With the above details and the requirements the turbine drive train should be able to respond according to the following conditions with various performance indices. Interval A : If the wind speed is so small that the available power is less than 10% of the nominal power then the wind turbine should be at rest. Interval B : Otherwise the power factor should be kept at its optimum value, i.e., keep λ= 6 and θ= 0 . This interval is valid until the optimal tip speed ratio cannot be fulfilled without violating the maximum allowable tip speed. Interval C : Otherwise, maintain maximum allowable tip speed. This interval is valid until the obtainable air power reaches the nominal value.    R  o   t  o  r  s  e  e   d Rated seed u ci u n u r u co Wind speed I IIII
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