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Student's Guide to Year 10 History

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Covers all the following topics: - United Nations - Gough Whitlam - Australia's Regional Agreements Suitable for use in Year 10 exams.
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  HISTORY REVISION AUSTRALIA AS A GLOBAL CITIZEN THE UNITED NATIONS PARTS TO THE UN The United Nations has 6 main parts: THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY    Representatives from all member states    UN’s main discussion forum   THE SECURITY COUNCIL    Five permanent members    10 members with 2 year terms    Responsible for maintaining international peace and security THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL (ECOSOC)    54 members with 3 year terms    Organises UN’s social and economic program      Promotes human rights THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL    Established to administer trust territories    Five permanent members of the Security Council    Convened if required, the Council has not been in operation since 1994 THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE    Judicial organ of the UN    15 independent judges with nine year terms. THE SECRETARIAT    Does the administrative work of the UN    Headed by a Secretary-General who is the main spokesperson of the UN.    The Secretary-General has a five year term which can renewed indefinitely AUSTRALIA’S ROLE IN THE UNITED NATIONS    Australia played a vital role in the establishment of the United Nations and in its early years of operation, as it was one of its founding members but also partaking in its programs, and is an active member in its operations.    Australia helped drew up the policies, powers and principles which would form the UN.    Doctor Evatt led Australia’s delegation to the San F rancisco Conference. He supported the participation of smaller countries in the discussions and decision making about the principles, powers and policies which would form the basis of the United Nations.    Dr Evatt’s role as the President of the General Assembly from 1948 -49, played a key role in the formation of Israel and was the first chairperson of its Atomic Energy Commission. Evatt also presided over the General Assembly session in which members unanimously passed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.    Australia has contributed to the early years of operation also through its contribution as part of the United Nations during the Korean War.    Australia also promotes its national concerns through participating in national discussions on aid programs, disarmament and nuclear safeguards, environment protection, global trade and finance, health, human rights, international security and refugee issues.    Through addressing these issues, Australia is an active member in UN multilateral  treaties and UN organisations such as UNESCO and the World Health Organisation.    AUSTRALIA’S SUPPORT FOR THE UNITED NATIONS    Australia has shown its support to the conventions of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.    Australia has shown its support further, by introducing legislation that has similar principles to the conventions it supports. Australi an family law reflects the principle of ‘the best interest of a child’, while the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Act 1986  incorporates these conventions with principles related to civil and political rights, the rights of the child and disabled people and non-discrimination in the workplace.    Australia has also shown its commitment to removing discrimination further with the Racial Discrimination Act 1975   aimed at removing racism within Australian society and the Sex Discrimination Act 1984  aimed at removing gender-based discrimination within Australian society. DEFINITIONS     Asylum Seeker: According to the Australian Human Rights Commission: An asylum seeker is a person who has fled their own country, due to persecution and applied for protection in another country as a refugee.    Refugee: A refugee is a person who has left their own country and is unable or unwilling to return due to a well-founded fear of being persecuted because of their race, religion, nationality or political opinion.    Mandatory Detention: Mandatory detention is the policy of imprisoning individuals suspected of violating immigration policy, including violation of visa terms, illegal entry or unauthorised entry into a particular nation. Mandatory detention is the policy also of imprisoning asylum seekers while refugee claims are being verified. AUSTRALIA AND INTERFET    INTERFET was the response to the humanitarian and security crisis that occurred in East Timor in September 1999. This crisis was the violent actions taken by Indonesian-backed pro-integration militia as a response to the result of the 1999 Referendum for Independence, where East Timor voted for full independence from Indonesia.    The results of the militia’s actions included violence, arsoxn, looting. The result of this  meant that housing, schools, irrigation systems, water and power supplies were destroyed. In addition to this, there were numerous deaths, as well as many refugees fleeing to West Timor or the mountains.    Australia’s role in INTERFET was firstly in establi shing it, in order to improve the situation in East Timor. Australia pressured the United Nation to send a United Task Force (UNTAET) to help with the situation. Australia led and directed INTERFET.    INTERFET was important in improving the security and infrastructure within East Timor. Australia sent directly to East Timor, humanitarian aid in order to help displaced people return to their homes. Australia provided 5500 of the 9000 personnel and also provided the force commander Major-General Peter Cosgrove.    Australia also provided a clearance diving team that ensured the beach was clear of mines, when they landed at East Timorese territory in West Timor. Australia played an important role in the transitioning East Timor from violence to peace, stability and able to establish a provisional government. AUSTRALIA AND UNESCO    Australia contributed to UNESCO through representation.    Gough Whitlam served as Australia’s ambassador to UNESCO from 1983 -1986, during which he was a member for both the International Commission on International Humanitarian Issues and the World Heritage Committee. He strongly advocated Australia’s fulfilling its commitments to supporting UN initiatives in human rights, the environment and the preservation of our heritage.    Australia showed its continual support to UNESCO, despite United States, Britain and Singapore withdrawing support over views that UNESCO was badly managed and ‘anti - western’.    Australia has amplified this support, through its involvement in a wide range of UNESCO programs. One of these include the Memory of the World (MOW) program, founded in 2005, which hopes to preserve important documents that otherwise be destroyed over time. Australia had established its own Australian Memory of the World Register in order to achieve this.  AUSTRALIA’S PEACE KE EPING ROLE    The 1990’s were significant in Australian history of peacekeeping, as this decade defined Australia’s role in the development “humanitarian intervention” and Australia played a key role in maintaining peacekeeping in t  he countries.     The role that Australia played in keeping peace in Cambodia was to bring peace to Cambodia after decades of civil war. Australia helped Cambodian refugees in Thailand to establish a legal system and police force in the lawless refugee camps. Australia signallers played a vital role as part of UN Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC). Australia’s foreign minister Gareth Evan’s and the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade played an important role in the negotiations for peace. ADF personnel, police officers, and electoral workers ensure that the 1993 Cambodian election was free, fair, and overwhelming supported by the people.     Australia needed to provide humanitarian support to Somalia, because Somalia was a famine stricken country caused by clan warfare and drought, and Australia as an active member of UN, took part in the UN Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) and the UN-sanctioned United Task Force (UNITAF) in Somalia.     Australians responded to the aftermath of Rwanda’s 1994 genocide by deployed a me dical contingent, and as part of the UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR), helped re-establish the Kigali Central Hospital in Rwandan capital.  AUSTRALIA’S INVOLVEM ENT IN REGIONAL AGREEMENTS ANZAC PACT The ANZAC Pact was a pact signed during World War II in 1944, between Australia and New Zealand. Some of the terms of agreement include:    The two governments agree to act together in matters of common concern in the South West and South Pacific.    The two governments agree that, within the framework of a general system of world security, a regional zone of defence compromising of the South-West and South Pacific areas should be established and that this zone should be based on Australia and New Zealand, stretching through the arc of islands, north and north-east of Australia to Western Samoa and the Cook Islands.    The two governments agree that the regulation of all air transport services should be subject to the terms of a convention which will supersede the Convention relating to the Regulation of Aerial Navigation.    The two governments declare that no change in a sovereignty or system of control of any of the islands in the Pacific should be effected except as a result of an agreement to which they are parties or in the terms of which they have both convened.    The two governments agree to promote the establishment of a regional organisation with advisory powers, to secure common policy on social, economic and political development directed towards the advancement and well-being of native peoples themselves. ANZUS TREATY The ANZUS treaty was a treaty signed between Australia, the US and New Zealand during the Korean War in 1951, some of the terms of agreement include:    The nations undertake to settle any international disputes in which they may be involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security and justice are not endangered and to refrain in their international relations from the threat of use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purpose of the United Nations.    In order to more effectively achieve the objective of this treaty the nations separately and jointly by means of continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid will maintain and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack.    The nations will consult together whenever in the opinion of any of them the territorial integrity, political dependence or security of any of nations is threatened in the Pacific.    The treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and obligations of the nations under the Charter of the United Nations or the responsibility of the United Nations for the maintenance of international security.    The nations hereby establish a council to consider matters concerning the implementation of this treaty. The Council should be organised to meet at any time.  In 1984, the treaty relationship changed when New Zealand banned the entry of US ships it believed to be nuclear powered and to have nuclear weapons capacity. In 1986, the United States suspended its ANZUS commitment to New Zealand. SEATO (ALSO KNOWN AS THE MANILLA PACT) The United States organised the formation of SEATO, the Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation, in September 1954. SEATO united its members –  Australia, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and the United States in an alliance to protect countries in South-East Asia and the Pacific that felt threatened by communism. It was dissolved in 1977. THE COLOMBO PLAN The Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic Development in South and South-East Asia (changed to the Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic and Social Development in Asia and the Pacific), was established with aims of identifying and providing what the less developed countries in region needed to improve their economies and living standards. They also had the aims of promoting friendship among the Asia-Pacific region and encourage international economic cooperation. The Colombo Plan provides support for the economic and social development of least developed areas of the Asia-Pacific region. This involves the more advanced member states providing and sharing the knowledge of technology and technical expertise with less advanced neighbours. The Colombo Plan provides programs to develop skills in public administration, private development, drug advice, publications and the use of databank systems. They are also committed to develop human resources, and reduce economic inequality in the region. SUMMARY:    The Colombo Plan was designed in order to benefit the poorer and less developed nations of the Asia Pacific region. With Australia taking a key role in its formation, shows that Australia has an active role in achieving its goals and aims. Australia suggested that more wealthy nations should try to help the developed of undeveloped nations through programs which provide and share knowledge of technology and train people in areas of public administration, private development, drug advice and use of databank systems.    The Colombo Plan promotes social development of the poorer nations in the Asia-Pacific region. Australia has being contributing to this with its humanitarian aid in Cambodia and East Timor, and its aid to the Asia-Pacific region.    The Colombo Plan promotes economic development of the poorer nations in the Asia-Pacific region. Australia contributes to this through its treaties in  APEC  and with  ASEAN countries. Through this it promotes trade between the nations to stimulate each other economies.
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