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  SWACHH BHARAT ABHIYAN - A WALK TOWARDS PLASTIC FREE NATION  byPritilata AcharyaAssistant Lecturer Institute of Hotel Management, Bhubaneswar!"#$$$#% ABSTRACT &ne of the biggest cleanliness campaign le' by Mr. (aren'ra Mo'i, the prime minister of In'ia to achie)e the )ision of *+lean In'ia* by $n' &ctober $!. +lean In'ia Mission aimsat cleaning the garbage-s in the urban area an' & 0open 'efecation free1 by buil'ing toiletsin rural areas to ha)e a worl'2class city. 3arbage-s woul' inclu'e all non2functional itemswhose use is no longer nee'e' li4e waste foo' items, bro4en househol' items etc. In theurban as well as rural In'ia plastics has been a ma5or source of pollutant in lan' an' water which a')ersely affects numerous li)ing organisms. 6his paper highlights the growingconcern for the increasing plastic pollution an' its ris4 both in water bo'ies an' in the lan'. Italso focuses on the urgent nee' for researching on the topic so that it ma4es e)eryone awareof the future threat it possesses on the en)ironment an' 'esigns 'ifferent ways to sustain our mother nature for future.7eywor's8 +lean In'ia Mission, Plastic Pollution, 3lobali9ation, :ustainable 'e)elopmentgoals, Alternate solution   INTRODUCTION *  Little drops of water make a mighty ocean"  As the ;uote says, :wachh Bharat Abhiyan a cleanliness 'ri)e le' by the prime minister of In'ia, Mr. (aren'ra Mo'i< happens to be one of the massi)e mo)ement towar's ma4ing thecountry clean with a )ision of ha)ing *worl' class city* in the country. 6he 'ri)e was starte'at the =a5path, (ew elhi on $n' &ctober $!% en)isioning to ha)e a clean city till the !>th birth'ay of Mahatma 3an'hi that is on $n' &ctober $! 0Abhiyan,$1. 6he +leanliness'ri)e is starte' to fulfill the 'reams of Mahatma 3an'hi of ha)ing a clean an' hygienic In'ia.6he people participating in the cleanliness 'ri)e are terme' as *swachhgrahies* or *Ambassa'or of cleanliness*. 6he mo)ement was le' by a wal4 from Man'ir Marg Policestation which was 5oine' by aroun' ? people where Mr. (aren'ra Mo'i himself wal4e' for a long way mar4ing a remar4able start to the cleanliness campaign. 6he wal4 was starte'with the mantra * 4 7a'am :wachhta 4i Aur 0&ne step towar's cleanliness1*. A number of acti)ities were organi9e' aroun' the country to mar4 the success of the cleanIn'ia mission which is acti)ely supporte' by the citi9ens of In'ia. )ery citi9en who is aswachtagrahi starts with a ple'ge to 'e)ote aroun' ! hrs per year in or'er to clean thesurroun'ing. 6he ple'ge also tells to sprea' the message of clean In'ia among one-s family,frien's, in city an' in )illages so that more number of people un'erstan' the importance of the mo)ement an' participate by contributing their part of wor4 in cleaning a part of thecountry 0*:wachh Bharat Abhiyan  Prime Minister of In'ia*, $!#1. 6he :wachh Bharat Abhiyan is 'i)i'e' un'er $ hea's that is :wachh Bharat Mission23ramin0illage1 which comes un'er Ministry of rin4ing water an' :anitation an' :wachhBharat Crban coming un'er the Ministry of Housing an' urban affairs, 3o)ernment of In'ia03&I1. ifferent types of acti)ities were organi9e' within the clean In'ia campaign2li4e rally,street plays etc to create an awareness le)el among the citi9ens of the country so that morean' more people 5oin the campaign an' ma4e it successful.In or'er to trac4 the progress of the swachhta action performe' at a )arious le)el a trac4ingsystem has been 'e)ise'. 6he go)ernment offices, schools, colleges performing 'ifferentacti)ities for cleaning the surroun'ing or ma4ing the people of the city aware of theimportance of cleaning recor' the e)ent a' )i'eo or photographs an' sen' it to the concerne'ministry. 6he Ministry )erifies the report along with the attache' photos an' )i'eos an'accor'ingly the cleaning action is being trac4e'.   6he :wachh Bharat +ampaign was starte' earlier on !st April $ un'er the rule of Mr.Manmohan :ingh 0D2prime minister of In'ia1 as *(irmalya Bharat* at the )illage le)el tosol)e the sanitation problem of the )illages 0asgupta et al, $!E1. Howe)er, the mission wasnot a success 'ue to an unrealistic approach. PLASTIC AS A POLLUTANT In !#>>, the first plastic was in)ente' by the scientist name' AleDan'er Par4es. 6he plasticnames were par4sine which was in)ente' from natural cellulose. :ince natural cellulose was bio'egra'able in nature so the plastic in)ente' was also bio'egra'able. Howe)er, later chemicals li4e Phenol an' ormal'ehy'e were use' which le' to the pro'uction of Ba4elite0rien4el, $!!1. )er since after that, with the passage of time plastic has been the ma5or cause of pollution inwater as well as lan' when 'umpe' along with the rest of the garbage. Fhen the 'ifferenttypes of wastes collecte' are been segregate', the wastes fall un'er two ma5or categories bio'egra'able an' non2bio'egra'able wastes. Bio'egra'able wastes are easier to 'ecomposein the soil but non2bio'egra'able wastes are of the )arieties which 'o not brea4s 'own easily.Plastics are such types of wastes. 6hey ta4e thousan's of years to brea4 themsel)es.Plastics are generally ma'e up of bin'ers along with plastici9ers, fillers, pigments, an' other a''iti)es. As the bin'er is the main component in the manufacture of plastic so the plasticgets its characteristics an' the name as per the bin'er use' in the manufacture of plastic03uem,$!#1. or eDample, poly)inyl chlori'e which is a )ery common plastic seen aroun'us has 'eri)e' its name an' its feature as per its bin'er use' name' *poly)inyl chlori'e-.Bin'ers can be ma'e from natural materials li4e cellulose 'eri)ati)es, casein or mil4 proteinor synthetic resins. Plastici9ers along with the bin'ers help in increasing the fleDibility an'toughness of the plastic. illers help in impro)ing specific properties in the plastic li4ehar'ness or resistance to shoc4. Pigments help in gi)ing the plastic its 'esire' colour.Plastics are basically of two types8 6hermoplastics an' 6hermosets. 6hermoplastics can bemol'e' whereas thermosets cannot be mol'e', with the application of heat an' pressure0Mu99y,$1.  Plastics are generally categori9e' as thermoplastics or thermosetting plastics 0Plastic8 bibliography,!%1. 6hermosetting plastics are plastics which can melt an' ta4e shape 5ustonce. :o they cannot be continuously reheate' to mol' to )arious shapes. +ommonly seenthermoset plastics are melamine, phenolics. Fhereas thermoplastics are the plastics which aresoft in nature an' 'o not change in their chemical composition when heat is applie' as a reason they can be mol'e' again an' again. :ome )arieties of the6hermoplastics are P+ 0poly)inyl chlori'e1, P6 0polytetrafluro ethylene1 etc. Most of the plastics use' these 'ays in the form of 'isposables or polythene come un'er the type of thermoplastics. 6hey are strong an' 'urable an' some of them, in fact, resist heat.Accor'ing to BI: +o'ification as tol' in =ule # 0b1 of the Plastic Faste 0Management an'Han'ling1 0Amen'ment1 =ules, $!!, there are se)en classes of plastics8 Plastics6hermosetting plastics 0(on 2 =ecyclable Plastics16hermoplastics 0=ecyclable plastics1PhenolicsMelaminesAcrylicsPolyester Polythene Figure 1: Classii!a"i#$ # Plas"i!s Fig 2: Types of Plastc ( Vasudevan e all,2012)  DOES THE USE OF PLASTIC WORTH% THE COST OUR EN&IRON'ENT IS PAYIN()  (o matter what sector we are tal4ing, plastics ha)e a usage in all sectors be it small or large.&ur life re)ol)es aroun' 'ifferent types of plastics starting from using polythene to carrygroceries till 'ifferent fitting parts of the furniture-s or machinery. &ne ma5or a')antage of  plastic 2 Its 'urability, has pro)e' to be the biggest problem for us to sustain our mother nature. As per the sur)ey that was 'one by +P+B 0+entral Pollution +ontrol Boar' 1 for )arious cities of the country to get 'ata on the plastic consumption in 'ifferent parts of thecountry, it is foun' that $>% tonnes of plastic waste is generate' per 'ay 0en4atesh G7u4reti,$!#1. Figure 2: Consupton of plastc  * &e$+a"es,  Ku+re"i%./10
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