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Test Bank for Social Problems in a Diverse Society Canadian 4th Edition by Kendall IBSN 9780205885756

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  Test Bank for Social Problems in a Diverse Society Canadian 4th Edition by Kendall IBSN 9780205885756 Download full : Test Bank for Social Problems in a Diverse Society Canadian 4th Edition by Kendall IBSN 9780205885756   NEWS: H ồ  Chí Minh (/ho ʊ  t  ʃiː mɪn/;[1] Vietnamese: [hò cǐ mīŋ ̟ ] (About this soundlisten), Saigon: [hò cǐ mɨ ̄ n] (About this soundlisten); Ch ữ  nôm: 胡志明 ; 19 May 1890  –   2 September 1969), born Nguy ễ n Sinh Cung,[2][3][4] also known as Nguy ễ n T ấ t Thành, Nguy ễ n Ái Qu ố c, Bác H ồ  or simply Bác, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam. He was also Prime Minister (1945  –  1955) and President (1945  –  1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). He was a key figure in the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 as well as the People's Army of Vietnam and the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War. H ồ  Chí Minh led the Vi ệ t Minh independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the Communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 and defeating the French Union in 1954 at the battle of Điệ n Biên Ph ủ . He officially stepped down from power in 1965 due to health problems. After the war, Saigon, the former capital of the Republic of Vietnam, was renamed H ồ  Chí Minh City.  Any description of H ồ  Chí Minh's life before he came to power in Vietnam is necessarily fraught with ambiguity. He is known to have used at least 50 (or 75)[5]:582 and perhaps as many as 200  pseudonyms.[6] Both his place and date of birth are subjects of academic debate since neither is known with certainty. At least four existing official biographies vary on names, dates, places and other hard facts while unofficial biographies vary even more widely.[7]Early life H ồ  Chí Minh was born and given the name of Nguy ễ n Sinh Cung (as appeared in a letter from the director of Collège Qu ố c h ọ c, dated 7 August 1908)[2][3][4] in 1890 in the village of Hoàng Trù (the name of the local temple near Làng Sen), his mother's village. Although this is his generally accepted birth year, at various times he used five different birth years: 1890,[8] 1891,[9] 1892,[10] 1894[11] and 1895.[12] From 1895, he grew up in his father Nguy ễ n Sinh S ắ c (Nguy ễ n Sinh Huy)'s village of Làng Sen, Kim Liên , Nam Đàn, Nghệ  An Province. He had three siblings: his sister B ạ ch Liên (or Nguy ễ n Th ị  Thanh), a clerk in the French Army; his brother Nguy ễ n Sinh Khiêm (or Nguy ễ n T ất Đạ t), a geomancer and traditional herbalist; and another brother (Nguy ễ n Sinh Nhu ậ n) who died in his infancy. As a young child, Cung studied with his father before more formal classes with a scholar named Vuong Thuc Do. Cung quickly mastered Chinese writing, a prerequisite for any serious study of Confucianism, while honing his colloquial Vietnamese writing.[5]:21 In addition to his studious endeavors, he was fond of adventure and loved to fly kites and go fishing.[5]:21 Following Confucian tradition, his father gave him a new name at the age of 10: Nguy ễ n T ấ t Thành ( Nguy ễ n the Accomplished ).  Thành's father was a Confucian scholar and teacher and later an imperial magistrate in the small remote district of Binh Khe (Qui  Nhơn). He was demoted for abuse of power after an influential local figure died several days after having received 102 strokes of the cane as punishment for an infraction.[5]:21 Thành's father was eligible to serve in the imperial bureaucracy, but he refused because it meant serving the French.[13] This exposed Thành to rebellion at a young age and seemed to be the norm for the province where Thành came of age. In deference to his father,[clarification needed] Thành received a French education, attended lycée in Hu ế , the alma mater of his later disciples, Ph ạm Văn Đồ ng and Võ Nguyên Giáp and his later enemy,  Ngô Đình Diệ m.[14] First sojourn in France Previously, it was believed that Thành was involved in an anti-slavery (anti-corvée) demonstration of poor peasants in Hu ế  in May 1908, which endangered his student status at Collège Qu ố c h ọ c. However, a document from the Centre des archives d'Outre-mer in France shows that he was admitted to Collège Qu ố c h ọ c on 8 August 1908, which was several months after the anti-corvée demonstration (9  –  13 April 1908).[3] The exaggeration of revolutionary credentials was common among Vietnamese Communist leaders as shown in Tôn Đứ c Th ắ ng's falsified participation in the 1919 Black Sea revolt. Later in life, he would claim the 1908 revolt had been the moment when his revolutionary outlook emerged,[citation needed] but his application to the French Colonial Administrative School in 1911 undermines this version of events. He chose to leave school in order to  find a chance to go abroad. Because his father had been dismissed, he no longer had any hope for a governmental scholarship and went southward, taking a position at D ụ c Thanh school in Phan Thi ế t for about six months, then traveled to Saigon.[citation needed] Thành worked as a kitchen helper on a French steamer, the Amirale de Latouche- Tréville while using the alias Văn Ba. The steamer departed on 5 June 1911 and arrived in Marseille, France on 5 July 1911. The ship then left for Le Havre and Dunkirk, returning to Marseille in mid-September. There, he applied for the French Colonial Administrative School, but his application was rejected and he instead decided to  begin traveling the world by working on ships and visited many countries from 1911 to 1917.[citation needed] In the United States While working as the cook's helper on a ship in 1912, Thành traveled to the United States. From 1912  –  1913, he may have lived in New York City (Harlem) and Boston, where he claimed to have worked as a baker at the Parker House Hotel. The only evidence that Thành was in the United States is a letter to French colonial administrators dated 15 December 1912 and postmarked New York City (he gave as his address Poste Restante in Le Havre and stated that he was a sailor) [15]:20 and a postcard to Phan Chu Trinh in Paris where he mentioned working at the Parker House Hotel. Inquiries to the Parker House management revealed no records of his ever having worked there.[5]:51 Among a series of menial jobs, he claimed to have worked for a wealthy family in Brooklyn between 1917  –  1918 and for General Motors as a line manager.[16]:46 It is believed that while in the United
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