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THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DAIRY PRODUCTION IN THE EU: PRACTICAL OPTIONS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

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                                Final report for European Commission (DGXI) Submitted by CEAS Consultants (Wye) LtdCentre for European Agricultural Studies and The European Forum on Nature Conservation and Pastoralism Telephone: 01233 812181Fax: 01233 813309  THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DAIRY PRODUCTION IN THE EU 2E-mail: postmaster@ceasc.co.ukCEAS 1779/BDB April 2000   THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DAIRYPRODUCTION IN THE EU: PRACTICALOPTIONS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OFTHE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTFINAL REPORT  THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DAIRY PRODUCTION IN THE EU i Contents S1. Executive summary............................................................................................................................iii1. Introduction.........................................................................................................................................11.1. Objectives.....................................................................................................................................11.2. Methodology.................................................................................................................................11.3. Report structure............................................................................................................................2 PART 1: DAIRY SYSTEM CLASSIFICATIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT .......................32. A review of dairy production in Europe...............................................................................................32.1. Production base data.....................................................................................................................32.2. Main production regions...............................................................................................................92.3. Economic and technical classification of dairy farming...................................................................92.3.1. High input/output systems...................................................................................................102.3.2. Low input/output systems....................................................................................................112.3.3. Mountain systems.................................................................................................................122.3.4. Mediterranean systems.........................................................................................................132.3.5. Organic systems...................................................................................................................142.4. Overview and trends...................................................................................................................153. Description of dairying in the bio-geographical regions.......................................................................173.1. Atlantic region.............................................................................................................................183.2. Continental region.......................................................................................................................233.3. Mediterranean region..................................................................................................................263.4. Boreal region...............................................................................................................................303.5. Alpine region...............................................................................................................................323.6. Macronesian region.....................................................................................................................354. Classification of dairy farming for environmental purposes.................................................................394.1. The environmental perspective....................................................................................................394.2. Land use categories (fodder and forage resources)......................................................................394.3. A Typology of EU Dairy Systems................................................................................................424.4. Dairy system profiles...................................................................................................................475. Main trends and environmental issues in EU dairy systems.................................................................555.1. The European perspective...........................................................................................................555.2. Approach to the assessment........................................................................................................555.3. Environmental issues and EU dairy systems.................................................................................565.3.1. Overview..............................................................................................................................565.3.2. Landscape and habitats.........................................................................................................565.3.3. Biodiversity...........................................................................................................................575.3.4. Soil.......................................................................................................................................595.3.5. Water...................................................................................................................................605.3.6. Air........................................................................................................................................615.3.7. Greenhouse gases.................................................................................................................615.3.8. Energy consumption use of non renewable resources...........................................................625.4. Trends and issues in each system.................................................................................................646. Agenda 2000 and the dairy sector: comments and analysis...............................................................736.1. Summary of reforms....................................................................................................................73  THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DAIRY PRODUCTION IN THE EU ii6.2. General implications of reforms...................................................................................................756.3. Implications by farm types..........................................................................................................776.4. Scope for affecting the environmental impact of dairy farming....................................................786.5. The potential use of the typology of EU Dairy Systems...............................................................79 PART 2: PRACTICAL OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF EUDAIRY SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................................817. Existing measures for improving the environmental impact of EU dairy systems.................................837.1. Introduction................................................................................................................................837.2. Overview of present measures to minimise the environmental impact.........................................837.3. Overview of present environmental enhancement measures (Regulation 2078/92 measures)....947.3.1. Overview of measures..........................................................................................................947.3.2. Grassland management measures.........................................................................................987.3.3. Rare breeds measures........................................................................................................1017.4. Existing enhancement measures and environmental impact: conclusions...................................1078. Potential new options for improving the environmental impact of EU dairy systems.......................1118.1. Introduction.............................................................................................................................1118.2. Practical options for delivering good agricultural (and environmental) practice: cross complianceacross dairy production systems.......................................................................................................1148.3. Practical options for delivering good agricultural (and environmental) practice: cross compliancefor specific dairy production systems................................................................................................1218.3.1. P1 Transhumant dairy systems..........................................................................................1228.3.2. Intensive grassland (ley) systems: G1.................................................................................1238.3.3. Permanent grassland (lowland) systems: G2......................................................................1248.3.4. Permanent grassland (mountain) systems: G3....................................................................1258.3.5. Conventional mixed dairy systems: CG1...........................................................................1258.3.6. Low input and organic mixed dairy systems: CG2.............................................................1278.3.7. Mediterranean mixed dairy systems: CG3.........................................................................1288.3.8. Intensive silage maize dairy systems: M1............................................................................1298.3.9. Industrial dairy systems: L1...............................................................................................1308.3.10. Mediterranean commercial dairy systems: L2..................................................................1308.4. Options for going beyond GAP and delivering environmental enhancement............................1308.4.1. Issues and options for environmental enhancement by dairy production system................1339. Conclusions.....................................................................................................................................1419.1. The value of the typology of EU dairy systems.........................................................................1419.2. Further developing the typology...............................................................................................1429.3. Trends in EU dairy systems and the environmental implications...............................................1439.4. Future policy perspective and implications...............................................................................145 9.5. Success to date of ‘neutrality and enhancement’ measures........................................................1459.6. The main environmental issues and practical options for addressing them................................1479.6.1. Common Market Organisations: dairy and beef................................................................1489.6.2. The Horizontal Regulation.................................................................................................1489.6.3. Rural Development Regulation..........................................................................................1509.7. Concluding comments: potential for greater benefits in future from new (or better targeted)options.............................................................................................................................................152Appendix 1: Note about data..............................................................................................................155

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