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1. Bioplastics Advances and Sustainability The 9th SPSJ International Polymer Conference (IPC2012) December 14, 2012 2. Presentation Outline Basic Definitions for…
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  • 1. Bioplastics Advances and Sustainability The 9th SPSJ International Polymer Conference (IPC2012) December 14, 2012
  • 2. Presentation Outline Basic Definitions for Bioplastics. Growth Factors For Bioplastics. Feedstocks and Sustainability. First and Second Generation Bioplastics. Bioplastics Growth Projections and Market Trends. Applications in Use Today for Bioplastics.
  • 3. Basic Definitions for BioplasticsBiodegradable or Compostable BioplasticsMeet all scientifically recognized standards forbiodegradability and compostability of plastics and plasticproducts.Independent of carbon origin-(i.e. Ecoflex, PBS, PLA ).Focus is on end-of-life or disposability.Biobased BioplasticsMust be organic and contain some percentage of recentlyfixed (new) carbon found in biological resources or crops.Focus on renewable resource based origin.Uses C14 content measurement.
  • 4. Growth Factors for BioplasticsRenewable resource versus oil based.Reduced environmental impact.Concerns about human health.End-of-Life disposal issues – Landfill.Legislative initiatives.
  • 5. Growth Factors for Bioplastics Bioplastics Opportunity
  • 6. Todays Bioplastic Feedstocks Sugar beetCorn Sorghum Cassava SorghumSugarcane All refined sugars - dextrose, glucose, sucrose.
  • 7. Bioplastics Feedstock IssuesFood versus Fuel Debate:• Food Crops Diversion to Fuels/Plastics• Land Use• Fertilizer Use• Pesticide Use• The “Ripple Effect “Use of GMOs
  • 8. More “Sustainable” Biomass Feedstocks Lignocellulose (wood, corn stover, other agricultural residues) Oil seeds (soy, rape/canola, palm, coconut, Jatropha) Microalgae Macroalgae (kelp) Waste:  MSW, food processing (cellulosic)  Used fats and oils  Animal processing wastes (rendering, feathers, hair, manure)
  • 9. Leading Biomass Source – Lignocellulosics Corn stover Rice straw Sugar cane Tall grasses bagasse Wood chips Wheat straw Source: Virent –”The Future For Bioplastics Feedstocks”
  • 10. Extracting Sugars From Cellulosics Most Common Industrial ApproachesDilute acid and enzyme Concentrated acidhydrolysis extraction Catalytic biomassWet oxidation and enzymehydrolysis deconstruction
  • 11. Commercially Proven Technology Virdia Process (c1938) Loblolly HCL Pine Preparation Concentrated HCL Sugar Recovery Sizing Deconstruction HCL RecycleTall Oil Removal HCL Final Lignin Deacidification Purification Tall Oil Soluble Lignin C5/C6 Sugars
  • 12. First Generation Bioplastics …………………….……………………………………………Starch/PLA/ECOFLEX Polylactic Acid (PLA) O O HO OH HO OH H CH3 H3C H L-Lactic Acid D-Lactic Acid (0.5%) Compounded, 100% Renewable & Compostable Biobased & Compostable
  • 13. First Generation PHA’sCompostable, biodegradable and renewable PHA picture courtesy of Telles
  • 14. Projected Biomaterials Trends Bioplastics are still less than 1% of the approximate 230 million tons of plastics in use today. Projected 20-30%AGR
  • 15. Projected Durables GrowthIncreasing demand for biobased, durable products in electronics and automotive applications. By 2011 durables were expected to account for almost 40% of bioplastics – compared with 12% in 2010. (European Bioplastics)
  • 16. Sales Trends in Bioplastics 205KT 500KT 1.2MT Jim Lunt & Associates LLC. Projections
  • 17. Why The Change? Continuing lack of infrastructure for use and disposal of compostable plastics. “Compostables” performance v durables. Increasing demand for biobased, semi-durable and durable products for household goods, electronics and automotive applications. Increasing interest and developments in existing and new monomers from renewable resources.
  • 18. Braskem “Green Polyethylene” from Sugar Cane ethanolsugar cane molasses HDPE polyethylene ethylene
  • 19. Bio Ethylene Glycol India Glycols, GTC, FENC, JBF fermentation ethanol sugar cane molasses -H2O +H2O oxidationEthylene glycol ethylene oxide ethylene
  • 20. Biobased TPA for PET from Sugars Gevo Global Bioenergies p-xylenebiobutanol isobutylene isooctene Toray/UOPAmyrisGenomatica t,t muconic acid dimethyl furan SABIC TPA fdca d limonene p cymene BP
  • 21. Anellotech/Virent Processes for Biobased AromaticsAnellotech Process Virent Process BTX=benzene, toluene, xylenes mixture.
  • 22. Other Bio “Building Blocks” Blocks”Succinic acid PTT, DSM, BASF, Bioamber, Roquette, Mitsubishi Chem., Myriant, PuracAdipic acid Rennovia, Verdezyne, GenomaticaButane diol GenomaticaFDCA AvantiumKetals Segetis, XLTerra/ReluceoCaprolactam AmyrisAcrylic acid Ceres, Dow/OPXIsosorbide ADM, RoquettePropylene BraskemPropane 1,3 diol DuPont / Tate & Lyle
  • 23. Biobased Succinic Acid and Derivatives Biobased Succinic Acid Succinic acid/PBS • BioAmber • PTT • MCC • DSM/Roquette • BASF/Purac Butane diol • Genomatica Adipic acid • Rennovia • Verdezyne Courtesy Myriant
  • 24. Examples of Emerging Technologies Avantium PEF ‘yxy’Avantium’s PEF is a 100% biobased polyester, with glasstransition 10 C higher than PET ,oxygen barrier 6-10times better than PET, CO2 barrier 2-4 times better thanPET, and water 2 times better than PET. FDCA bottles Plant based PEF filmscarbohydrates EG fibers Courtesy of Avantium
  • 25. Ketal Plasticizers/Poly XLK O O O O L-Ketals OHHO HO OH HO OH O NH2 succinic acid 3-hydroxypropionic acid glutamic acid O O HO OH HO OHO O NH2 OH OH O O OR glycerol 4-hydroxybutyrolactone O aspartic acid HO O O O O OH OH OHO HO OH O O itaconic acid levulinic acid 2,5-furandicacboxylic acid OH OH OH OH OH O OH OH HO OH O OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH O O O xylitol sorbitol glucaric acid O O O n PXLK XLTerra
  • 26. Bioplastic ProductsIn The Marketplace
  • 27. PLA
  • 28. Cellulose Acetate
  • 29. Compounded PLA/Starch Blends
  • 30. Green Polyethylene
  • 31. Bio PET
  • 32. The Future For Bioplastics Will Depend On Oil pricing continuing to increase. Improved performance. Composting/recycling infrastructure developments. Expanding from single-use compostable to durable applications. Moving to non-food source feedstocks. Competition from carbon dioxide based plastics.
  • 33. Thank You
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