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06s 1801 Shibuyama a2

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  Loni ShibuyamaContemporary Cultural InstitutionsInstructor: Antonia LantSpring 2006 Final Paper—   National Film Archive of India I. NFAI: Its History, Mission and Activities In 1964, the Inian go!ernment establishe the ational #ilm Archi!e o$ Inia%a meia unit o$ the &inistry o$ In$ormation an 'roacasting o$ the (o!ernment o$ Inia) #AI, along *ith the #ilm Institute o$ Inia in +une, e!elope to become the national resource center $or $ilm an $ilm relate material) Since then, its sta$$ has ha the aruous tas o$ tracing o*n an ac-uiring any $ilm an relate material, *hich has a particular $ocus on the history an heritage o$ Inian cinema) All ma.or $uning comes $rom the Inian go!ernment an through ser!ices pro!ie /outline later in this paper) !er the years,   #AIs mission has e!elope into the $ollo*ing: ã 3o trace, ac-uire an preser!e $or posterity the heritage o$ national cinema an a representati!e collection o$ *orl cinema ã 3o classi$y an ocument ata relate to $ilm an unertae an encourage research on cinema ã 3o act as a center $or the issemination o$ $ilm culture in the country, an to  promote Inian cinema abroaSince 1969, #AI has been a member o$ the International #eeration o$ #ilm Archi!es /#IA#) It is eicate to its role as a pur!eyor o$ its national $ilm culture an gi!es  particular attention to the issemination o$ $ilm culture5 by $ocusing on research an eucation o$ the archi!es) In the mi1970s, #AI solii$ie its position as a national resource center *hen the Inian go!ernment grante large $uns $or the Archi!e to e8pan beyon its rather humble beginnings) 3he Archi!es *ere still on the premises o$ the #ilm Institute in Inia, an the #AI still ha not ha its o*n home or ientity) ealiing the importance o$ Inian cinema as part o$ its cultural heritage, the Inian go!ernment ga!e #AI $uns to e8pan an builing regional o$$ices throughout the country) As a result, #AI mo!e its holings out o$ the o$$ices an maeshi$t !aults at the #ilm Institute to its ne* builing in +une in 1994, *hich is the Archi!es national hea-uarters) 3he ne* builing inclues t*o theater spaces, a library an proper storage areas esigne speci$ically $or its $ilm holings) In aition, since 197;, #AI has 1  establishe three aitional regional o$$ices) 3oay, its $uture goals an ob.ecti!es are to  buil more storage $acilities $or $ilm an to buil its o*n $ilm preser!ation laboratory) II. Organizational Structure 3he ational #ilm Archi!es o$ Inias national hea-uarters are currently in +une, Inia) It is a relati!ely smaller city near &umbai /'ombay, the largest city in Inia an the center o$ Inias $ilm inustry) It is near #AIs $ormer home, the #ilm Institute o$ Inia)Its location in this less ensely populate city an more moerate *eather conitions has allo*e $or better conitions uner *hich to store such materials as $ilm) <o*e!er, it is still *ithin close pro8imity o$ &umbai, *here #AI can maintain close relationships *ith $ilmmaers, scholars, researchers an other intereste parties that are concentrate in that city) 3he national hea-uarters is organie into $our i!isions: the <ea o$ the rganiation, *hich inclues the irector o$ the Archi!es= the #ilm +reser!ation Section, *hich is in charge o$ ac-uiring an preser!ing $ilm an relate material= the #ilm Library Section, *hich inclues its boos an perioicals, its $ocus on research an ocumentation an itsoperations in access $or the public= an $inally its Aministrati!e Section) As part o$ #AIs 197; e8pansion plans, #AI has since establishe three regional o$$ices in other cities in Inia) 3he regional o$$ices are in 'angalore, 3hiru!ananthapuram%both in the southern part o$ Inia%an >olcata /Calcutta, in the northern area) ?ach o$ these o$$ices has its o*n theater or !ie*ing space, its o*n library an its o*n storage areas) III. !e ollection #ormerly, the collections o$ #AI *ere hel on the premises o$ the #ilm Institute o$ Iniaan *oul remain there until the collections *ere mo!e to the ne* #AI builing in 1994) In #AIs early years, its sta$$ *as eicate to tracing o*n an ac-uiring any $ilms that sur!i!e o$ the earliest years o$ Inian cinema) 3oay, it continues this *or as*ell as ac-uiring more recent an contemporary prouctions o$ its national cinema)   #AI $ocuses attention to the $ollo*ing categories o$ $ilms: ã   ational an State A*ar*inning $ilms ã Inian +anorama #ilms /a speciallyselecte group o$ $ilms $rom the International #ilm #esti!al in Inia%consiere, $or many, the best5 $ilms mae in Inia ã 'o8o$$ice hits ã #ilms sho*n in international $ilm $esti!als ã #ilm aaptations o$ literary *ors ã #ilms representing i$$erent genres o$ Inian cinema ã   e*sreels ã @ocumentaries2    #AI ac-uires this collection $irst through onations or $ree eposits) Collectors an $ilmmaers are o$ten *illing to o this because they unerstan the importance o$  preser!ing the materials an they o not ha!e to gi!e up any copyright they may o*n) It is manatory $or the #AI to ac-uire all ational a*ar*inning $ilms as *ell as Inian +anorama $ilms) #or certain prouctions, #AI *ill acti!ely pursue the $ilmmaer, o*ner or istributor $or a print o$ the $ilm) ccasionally, #AI *ill gi!e compensation $or !arious ac-uisitions)   #AIs $ilm collection also inclues a representati!e sampling o$ $oreign $ilms) ithin this category are mainly $eature $ilm prouctions taen $rom the estern canons o$ $ilm history) 3ypical names in this part o$ the collection inclue (oar, enoir, 'ergman, >urosa*a, elles, among others) In aition to the $ilm, #AI also collects other ancillary materials such as isc recorings, stills, posters, song boolets, pamphlets, press clippings an micro$ilm) In itsresearch library, #AI hols appro8imately 2;,000 boos an perioicals publishe in Inia an aroun the *orl regaring cinema) 3he library also hols !arious paper recors an reports, an it has o!er 2;,000 scripts recei!e $rom the Central 'oar o$ #ilm Certi$ication) I#. Access and Pu$lic Services  3he #AI pro!ies !arious ser!ices to $acilitate historic an scholarly research an appreciation o$ $ilm) In the national hea-uarters builing in +une there are t*o theaters onsite, *hich are use $or Archi!e screenings an $or ini!iuals or organiations to rent) #or a $ee, both the main theater /BB0seat an the pre!ie* theater /B0seat pro!ie patrons the use o$ their rooms an pro.ection $acilities to pro!ie a more en.oyable e8perience in !ie*ing $ilm) It is interesting to note some o$ the policies $or using the theaters inclue no $oot*ear allo*e in the theater, no banners or a!ertisements allo*eany*here on the premises, an no ritual ceremony%or lighting o$ the lamp to mar the inauguration5 as it is e8presse in the agreement policy%allo*e in the builing)ithin the library there is also !ie*ing e-uipment $or scholars, researchers an ini!iuals *ho *ish to !ie* a particular $ilm or !ieo) ie*ing $acilities come in <S an 16mm $ilm *ith *hich ini!iuals are allo*e to *atch a particular title $rom the collection) All other research an access is pro!ie *ithin the library epartments in the hea-uarters at +une, as *ell as in the three other regional o$$ices) All these opportunities $or access an ser!ices are uner the umbrella o$ the @issemination o$ #ilm Culture5 in *hich #AI sees to pro!ie its patrons *ith all types o$ opportunities in orer to encourage preser!ation, research an appreciation) ?8amples o$ the ins o$ acti!ities #AI conucts in the issemination is $urther outline in the $ollo*ing section) B  #. o%%it%ent to &'isse%ination o( Fil% ulture) 3he ational #ilm Archi!e o$ Inia unertaes se!eral public programs an pro.ect esigne to encourage scholarship an sprea the appreciation $or $ilm an $ilm  preser!ation in Inia an abroa) 3hese programs are outline here:A) @istribution Library3he istribution libraries at the national hea-uarters in +une, as *ell as a the three regional o$$ices, loan $ilm prints to !arious organiations or ini!iual members *ho *ant to conuct a public screening o$ a $ilm *ithin #AIs collection) 3he screenings are usually in eucational institutions, cultural organiations, $ilm societies, etc) 3he $ilms can be sent throughout the country an abroa) ') Screenings, #esti!als an #ilm Circles  #AI regularly hols screenings an $ilm $esti!als to sho*case the many  prouctions *ithin their collection) 3hese screenings are not limite to Inian prouce cinema, but also inclue its $oreign $ilm titles) egular screenings are hel at each o$ the o$$ices an are o$ten conucte in collaboration *ith an outsie cultural organiation or eucational institution) ccasionally, screenings are organie to commemorate historical e!ents an to pay tribute to eminent $ilmartists, etc)  #AI also hols a #ilm Circle, in *hich programs an screenings are one on a *eely basis) 3he #ilm Circle is only a!ailable to members o$ the Archi!e, an membership is open to the public)C) esearch an #ilm Stuies3he #AI encourages an promotes research an acaemic acti!ities on e!ery aspect o$ cinema, particularly in the area o$ Inian $ilm history) 'esies $acilitating access to the collection, the Archi!e !ery acti!ely sponsors programs an pro.ects to promote this type o$ research) 3he $irst o$ these programs at #AI is a research fellowship , in *hich #AI gi!esa monthly stipen an tra!el allo*ances to a ini!iuals conucting srcinal research at #AI) 3his srcinal research coul be on any topic relating to Inian cinema%its history, aesthetics or socioeconomic impact) 3he secon program uner research an $ilm stuies is  Monographs , in *hich ini!iuals are gi!en a stipen to conuct research on a particular $ilmmaer *ho has been regare as a pioneer in the Inian $ilm inustry) 3he pro.ect shoul be complete *ithin si8 months, an the scope shoul inclue biographical in$ormation about the personality, their contribution to Inian $ilmmaing an a comprehensi!e $ilmography) 4
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