1. Cayetano. vs. Monsod.doc

Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila SECOND DIVISION G.R. No. 100113 September 3, 1991 RENATO CAYETANO, petitioner, vs. CHRISTIAN MONSOD, HON. JOVITO R. SALONGA, COMMISSION ON APPOINTMENT, and HON. GUILLERMO CARAGUE, in his capacity as Secretary of Budget and Management, respondents. Renato L. Cayetano for and in his own behalf. Sabina E. Acut, Jr. and Mylene Garcia-Albano co-counsel for petitioner. PARAS, J.:p We are faced here with a controversy of far-reaching proportions. While o
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  Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT ManilaSECOND DIVISION G.R. No. 100113 September 3, 1991RENATO CAYETANO, petitioner, vs. CHRISTIAN MONSOD, HON. JOITO R. SA!ONGA, COMMISSION ONAPPOINTMENT, #$ HON. GUI!!ERMO CARAGUE, %# &%' ( p (%t) 'Se(ret r) o* +$-et #$ M # -eme#t, respondents . Renato L. Cayetano for and in his own behalf.Sabina E. Acut, Jr. and Mylene Garcia-Albano co-counsel for petitioner. PARAS,  J.:p e are faced here !ith a controvers of far#reachin$ proportions. hileostensibl onl le$al issues are involved, the Court%s decision in this case!ould indubitabl have a profound e&ect on the political aspect of ournational e'istence. (he )*+ Constitution provides in Section ) -), /rticle I0#C1 (here shall be a Co22ission on Elections co2posed of a Chair2an and si'Co22issioners !ho shall be natural#born citi3ens of the Philippines and, atthe ti2e of their appoint2ent, at least thirt #4ve ears of a$e, holders of acolle$e de$ree, and 2ust not have been candidates for an elective positionin the i22ediatel precedin$ #elections. 5o!ever, a 2a6orit thereof,includin$ the Chair2an, shall be 2e2bers of the Philippine 7ar !ho havebeen en$a$ed in the practice of la! for at least ten ears. -E2phasissupplied (he afore8uoted provision is patterned after Section l-l, /rticle 0II#C of the)*9 Constitution !hich si2ilarl provides1 (here shall be an independent Co22ission on Elections co2posed of aChair2an and ei$ht Co22issioners !ho shall be natural#born citi3ens of thePhilippines and, at the ti2e of their appoint2ent, at least thirt #4ve ears of a$e and holders of a colle$e de$ree. 5o!ever, a 2a6orit thereof, includin$the Chair2an, shall be 2e2bers of the Philippine 7ar who hae beenen!a!ed in the practice of law for at least ten years. % -E2phasis suppliedRe$rettabl , ho!ever, there see2s to be no 6urisprudence as to !hatconstitutes practice of la! as a le$al 8uali4cation to an appointive o:ce.7lac; de4nes <practice of la!< as1 )Ca etano vs. MonsodProble2 /reas in =e$al Ethics   (he rendition of services re8uirin$ the ;no!led$e and the application of le$alprinciples and techni8ue to serve the interest of another !ith his consent. Itis not li2ited to appearin$ in court, or advisin$ and assistin$ in the conductof liti$ation, but e2braces the preparation of pleadin$s, and other papersincident to actions and special proceedin$s, conve ancin$, the preparation of le$al instru2ents of all ;inds, and the $ivin$ of all le$al advice to clients. Ite2braces all advice to clients and all actions ta;en for the2 in 2attersconnected !ith the la!. /n attorne en$a$es in the practice of la! b 2aintainin$ an o:ce !here he is held out to be#an attorne , usin$ aletterhead describin$ hi2self as an attorne , counselin$ clients in le$al2atters, ne$otiatin$ !ith opposin$ counsel about pendin$ liti$ation, and4'in$ and collectin$ fees for services rendered b his associate. - lac#$s Law%ictionary  , 9rd ed. (he practice of la! is not li2ited to the conduct of cases in court. - Land &itle Abstract and &rust Co. . %wor#en, )>* Ohio St. >9, )*9 N.E. ?@A / person isalso considered to be in the practice of la! !hen he1... for valuable consideration en$a$es in the business of advisin$ person,4r2s, associations or corporations as to their ri$hts under the la!, orappears in a representative capacit as an advocate in proceedin$s pendin$or prospective, before an court, co22issioner, referee, board, bod ,co22ittee, or co22ission constituted b la! or authori3ed to settlecontroversies and there, in such representative capacit perfor2s an act oracts for the purpose of obtainin$ or defendin$ the ri$hts of their clientsunder the la!. Other!ise stated, one !ho, in a representative capacit ,en$a$es in the business of advisin$ clients as to their ri$hts under the la!,or !hile so en$a$ed perfor2s an act or acts either in court or outside of court for that purpose, is en$a$ed in the practice of la!. - State e'. rel.Mc#ittric# ..C.S. %udley and Co.,  )A> S.. >d +*@, 9BA Mo. +@> (his Court in the case of (hilippine Lawyers Association .A!raa, -)A@ Phil.)9,)?#) stated1 &he practice of law  is not li2ited to the conduct of cases or liti!ation in court  it e2braces the preparation of pleadin$s and other papers incident to actionsand special proceedin$s, the 2ana$e2ent of such actions and proceedin$son behalf of clients before 6ud$es and courts, and in addition, conve in$. In$eneral, all adice to clients , and all action ta;en for the2 in2atters connected with the law  incorporation services, assess2ent andconde2nation services conte2platin$ an appearance before a 6udicial bod ,the foreclosure of a 2ort$a$e, enforce2ent of a creditor%s clai2 inban;ruptc and insolvenc proceedin$s, and conductin$ proceedin$s inattach2ent, and in 2atters of estate and $uardianship have been held toconstitute la! practice, as do the preparation and draftin$ of le$alinstru2ents, where the wor# done inoles the deter)ination by the trained >Ca etano vs. MonsodProble2 /reas in =e$al Ethics  le!al )ind of the le!al e*ect of facts and conditions . -@ /2. r. p. >?>, >?9.-E2phasis supplied (ractice of law  under 2ode2 conditions consists in no s2all part of !or;perfor2ed outside of an court and havin$ no i22ediate relation toproceedin$s in court. It e2braces conve ancin$, the $ivin$ of le$al advice ona lar$e variet of sub6ects, and the preparation and e'ecution of le$alinstru2ents coverin$ an e'tensive 4eld of business and trust relations andother a&airs.  Althou!h these transactions )ay hae no direct connectionwith court proceedin!s, they are always sub+ect to beco)e inoled inliti!ation . (he re8uire in 2an aspects a hi$h de$ree of le$al s;ill, a !idee'perience !ith 2en and a&airs, and $reat capacit for adaptation to di:cultand co2ple' situations. (hese custo2ar functions of an attorne orcounselor at la! bear an inti2ate relation to the ad2inistration of 6ustice b the courts. No valid distinction, so far as concerns the 8uestion set forth inthe order, can be dra!n bet!een that part of the !or; of the la! er !hichinvolves appearance in court and that part !hich involves advice anddraftin$ of instru2ents in his o:ce. It is of i2portance to the !elfare of thepublic that these 2anifold custo2ar functions be perfor2ed b personspossessed of ade8uate learnin$ and s;ill, of sound 2oral character, andactin$ at all ti2es under the heav trust obli$ations to clients !hich restsupon all attorne s. -Moran, Co))ents on the Rules of Court  , Vol. 9 )*@9ed.F , p. ??@#???, citin$ n re pinion of the Justices  Mass.F, )*B N.E. 9)9,8uoted in Rhode s. ar Assoc. . Auto)obile Serice Assoc . R.I.F )* /.)9*,)BB. -E2phasis ours (he Gniversit of the Philippines =a! Center in conductin$ orientationbrie4n$ for ne! la! ers -)*B#)*@ listed the di2ensions of the practice of la! in even broader ter2s as advocac , counsellin$ and public service.One 2a be a practicin$ attorne in follo!in$ an line of e2plo 2ent in theprofession. If !hat he does e'acts ;no!led$e of the la! and is of a ;indusual for attorne s en$a$in$ in the active practice of their profession, and hefollo!s so2e one or 2ore lines of e2plo 2ent such as this he is a practicin$attorne at la! !ithin the 2eanin$ of the statute. - arr . Cardell , )@@ N9)>Practice of la! 2eans an activit , in or out of court, !hich re8uires theapplication of la!, le$al procedure, ;no!led$e, trainin$ and e'perience. <(oen$a$e in the practice of la! is to perfor2 those acts !hich arecharacteristics of the profession. Henerall , to practice la! is to $ive noticeor render an ;ind of service, !hich device or service re8uires the use in an de$ree of le$al ;no!led$e or s;ill.< -))) /=R >9 (he follo!in$ records of the )*+? Constitutional Co22ission sho! that it hasadopted a liberal interpretation of the ter2 <practice of la!.< 9Ca etano vs. MonsodProble2 /reas in =e$al Ethics  MR. OJ. 7efore !e suspend the session, 2a I 2a;e a 2anifestation !hich Ifor$ot to do durin$ our revie! of the provisions on the Co22ission on /udit.Ma I be allo!ed to 2a;e a ver brief state2entK (5E PRESIDINH OICER -Mr. a2ir. (he Co22issioner !ill please proceed.MR. OJ. &his has to do with the uali/cations of the )e)bers of theCo))ission on Audit. A)on! others, the uali/cations proided for by Section  is that 0&hey )ust be Me)bers of the (hilippine ar0 1  a)uotin! fro) the proision 1 0who hae been en!a!ed in the practice of lawfor at least ten years0 . (o avoid an 2isunderstandin$ !hich !ould result in e'cludin$ 2e2bers of the 7ar !ho are no! e2plo ed in the CO/ or Co22ission on /udit, wewould li#e to )a#e the clari/cation that this proision on uali/cationsre!ardin! )e)bers of the ar does not necessarily refer or inole actual practice of law outside the CA 2e hae to interpret this to )ean that aslon! as the lawyers who are e)ployed in the CA are usin! their le!al#nowled!e or le!al talent in their respectie wor# within CA, then they areuali/ed to be considered for appoint)ent as )e)bers or co))issioners,een chair)an, of the Co))ission on Audit  . (his has been discussed b the Co22ittee on Constitutional Co22issionsand /$encies and !e dee2 it i2portant to ta;e it up on the Loor so that thisinterpretation 2a be 2ade available !henever this provision on the8uali4cations as re$ards 2e2bers of the Philippine 7ar en$a$in$ in thepractice of la! for at least ten ears is ta;en up.MR. OP=E. ill Co22issioner o3 ield to 6ust one 8uestion.MR. OJ. es, Mr. Presidin$ O:cer.MR. OP=E. s he, in e*ect, sayin! that serice in the CA by a lawyer iseuialent to the reuire)ent of a law practice that is set forth in the Articleon the Co))ission on Audit3 MR. OJ. 2e )ust consider the fact that the wor# of CA, althou!h it isauditin!, will necessarily inole le!al wor#4 it will inole le!al wor#. And,therefore, lawyers who are e)ployed in CA now would hae the necessary uali/cations in accordance with the (roision on uali/cations under our  proisions on the Co))ission on Audit. And, therefore, the answer is yes. MR. OP=E. es. So that the construction $iven to this is that this is e8uivalentto the practice of la!.MR. OJ. 5es, Mr. (residin! 6cer  . BCa etano vs. MonsodProble2 /reas in =e$al Ethics
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