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11 Pronouns. Grammar Review 443. Writing Application 449 UNIT. Lesson 11.1 Personal Pronouns 429. Lesson 11.2 Pronouns and Antecedents PDF

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UNIT 11 Lesson 11.1 Personal 429 Lesson 11.2 and Antecedents 431 Lesson 11.3 Using Correctly 433 Lesson 11.4 Possessive 435 Lesson 11.5 Indefinite 437 Lesson 11.6 Reflexive and Intensive 439 Lesson 11.7
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UNIT 11 Lesson 11.1 Personal 429 Lesson 11.2 and Antecedents 431 Lesson 11.3 Using Correctly 433 Lesson 11.4 Possessive 435 Lesson 11.5 Indefinite 437 Lesson 11.6 Reflexive and Intensive 439 Lesson 11.7 Interrogative 441 Grammar Review 443 Writing Application 11.1 Personal A pronoun is a word that takes the place of one or more nouns. The most frequently used pronouns are called personal pronouns. The words It and her in the second sentence below are personal pronouns. The myth amuses Kim. It amuses her. that are used to refer to people or things are called personal pronouns. Some personal pronouns are used as the subjects of sentences. Other personal pronouns are used as the objects of verbs or prepositions. In the example above, the pronoun It replaces the noun myth as the subject of the sentence. The pronoun her replaces Kim as the direct object of the verb amuses. A subject pronoun is a personal pronoun in the nominative case. It is used as the subject of a sentence. She especially likes Atalanta s Race. An object pronoun is a personal pronoun in the objective case. It is used as the object of a verb or a preposition. The librarian recommended it to us. Study the personal pronouns in the chart below. Used as Subjects Used as Objects Personal Singular I you he, she, it me you him, her, it Plural we you they us you them 11.1 Personal 429 Exercise 1 Identifying Personal List the pronouns and identify each pronoun as a subject pronoun in the nominative case or an object pronoun in the objective case. 1. I will tell you a story about three characters in mythology. 2. They are named Daphne, Apollo, and Cupid. 3. Apollo loved Daphne, but Daphne did not love him. 4. The malice of Cupid caused the dissention between them. 5. Apollo said, Cupid s arrows are not worthy weapons for me. 6. Cupid replied, This arrow is small but still can wound you. 7. Then he stood on a rock and pulled two arrows from a quiver. 8. Aiming at Daphne, Cupid pierced her with a tiny leaden arrow. 9. From then on, she refused all offers of marriage. 10. Cupid s golden darts bring love, and leaden darts repel it. Exercise 2 Using in the Nominative and Objective Cases Write each sentence, replacing the underlined word or words with a pronoun. Identify each pronoun as a subject pronoun in the nominative case or an object pronoun in the objective case. 1. Greek poets developed myths from old stories. 2. Rita studied the myths for their factual information. 3. Myths about historical events interest Dan. 4. Rita traced the different versions of one myth. 5. Atalanta s Race is an interesting Greek myth, according to Rita and Dan. 6. The myth of Atalanta tells about a foot race. 7. Atalanta is a beautiful woman and a very fast runner. 8. Many men want Atalanta as their bride. 9. Atalanta refuses the men time after time. 10. Atalanta arranges a race to find the fastest runner. 11. Atalanta will marry a man faster than she is. 12. Atalanta passes the runners with graceful ease. 13. Hippomenes wants Atalanta as his wife. 14. Hippomenes asks Aphrodite for help in his race against Atalanta. 15. Aphrodite helps Hippomenes. 16. She gives three golden apples and instructions to Hippomenes. 17. Hippomenes drops the apples along the way. 18. Atalanta picks the golden apples up and so forsakes her victory. 19. Hippomenes takes Atalanta as his bride. 20. Aphrodite brings Hippomenes and Atalanta together. 430 Unit11 11.2 and Antecedents Read the following sentences. Can you tell to whom the word She refers? Arachne competes against Athena. She weaves skillfully. The sentence is not clear because the word She could refer to either Arachne or Athena. Sometimes you must repeat a noun or rewrite the sentence. Read the sentences below. Repeating the noun makes it clear who weaves skillfully. Arachne competes against Athena. Athena weaves skillfully. The noun or group of words that a pronoun refers to is called its antecedent. When you use a pronoun, you should be sure that it refers to its antecedent clearly. Be especially careful when you use the pronoun they. Read the following sentence. They have several books about Greek myths at the library. The meaning of They is unclear. The sentence can be improved by rewriting it in the following manner. Several books on Greek myths are available at the library. When using pronouns, you must also make sure that they agree with their antecedents in number (singular or plural) and gender. The gender of a noun may be masculine (male), feminine (female), or neuter (referring to things). Notice how the pronouns in the sentences below agree with their antecedents. The myth of Arachne is amusing. I enjoyed it. The bystanders see Athena. They watch her at the loom and Antecedents 431 Exercise 3 Using and Antecedents Correctly Write the second sentence in each pair. Use the correct pronoun in each blank. Then write the antecedent of the pronoun and its number. 1. The maiden Arachne lives in Lydia. is a country in Asia. 2. Arachne is a skillful weaver. boasts about her weaving. 3. Arachne first forms woolen threads. feel as soft as clouds. 4. People watch Arachne and admire her work. They tell her, Pallas Athena must have taught. 5. The angry Arachne replies, So you think my art comes from a teacher? I tell that I am a better weaver than Athena herself! 6. Athena and Arachne enter into a contest. The people watch the two of. 7. The weaving hands work with great speed. are a blur. 8. There has never been such a contest. is amazing to see. 9. Both weavers do their best. Both of try to win. 10. Athena weaves pictures of a story about the male god Poseidon. In her story, loses a contest to her. 11. Poseidon is the ruler of the sea. is his domain. 12. Poseidon carries a trident. This symbol identifies. 13. The people look at Athena s pictures. The curious audience observes woven into cloth. 14. Athena is in the pictures. is shown dressed in armor. 15. Arachne weaves a story about the male god Zeus. looks alive and seems to speak. 16. Her weaving also shows a swan and a bull. look real. 17. At the end of the contest, Athena is the winner. has woven a fabric like a rainbow. 18. Arachne is the loser. feels guilty about the challenge. 19. Arachne s pictures displease Athena. Athena destroys. 20. Arachne is punished. is turned into a spider. 21. Arachne will weave webs forever. will weave them in old houses. 22. All Arachne s descendants are spiders. get their scientific name, arachnid, from her name. 23. Edmund Spenser was an English poet. wrote a poem about Arachne. 24. You and I can find the poem on the Internet. must look in the literature section. 25. The literature section is always crowded. is very popular. 432 Unit 11 11.3 Using Correctly Subject pronouns in the nominative case are used in compound subjects, and object pronouns in the objective case are used in compound objects. He and Carmen wrote a report on the subject. [not Him and Carmen] Tell John and me about Hercules. [not John and I] A preposition takes an object, just as many verbs do. The object of a preposition can be simple or compound. In either case, use an object pronoun as the object of the preposition. In the sentences below, the pronouns in dark type are the objects of the preposition to. Lee read a famous Roman myth to me. Lee read a famous Roman myth to Irma and me. If you are not sure which form of the pronoun to use, say the sentence aloud with only the pronoun as the subject or the object. Your ear will tell you which form is correct. Whenever the pronoun I is part of a compound subject, it should always be placed after the other parts of the subject. Similarly, when the pronoun me is part of a compound object, it should go after the other parts of the object. Lee and I read some ancient Roman myths. [not I and Lee] Mythology interests Lee and me. [not me and Lee] In formal writing and speech use a subject pronoun after a linking verb. The writer of this report was she. It is I Using Correctly 433 Exercise 4 Using in the Nominative and Objective Cases Correctly Write each sentence. Use the correct word or words in parentheses. Then identify each pronoun you selected as a subject pronoun or an object pronoun. 1. (She, Her) and Chen told the class about Roman mythology. 2. They told Earl and (I, me) about Jupiter and Mars. 3. Mars and (he, him) were the most important gods. 4. Two planets were named after Mars and (he, him). 5. Dom and (me, I) asked questions about Jupiter. 6. Dom described a famous Roman myth to Chen and (I, me). 7. Earl and (he, him) know about Roman culture. 8. Sandra and (we, us) listened to the ancient Roman story of Romulus and Remus. 9. The founders of the city of Rome were (they, them). 10. Romulus and (he, him) were twin sons of a god and a human. 11. A basket with Romulus and (he, him) in it was set adrift. 12. A she-wolf cared for Remus and (he, him). 13. Romulus, Remus, and (she, her) became popular figures in Roman art. 14. Later (he, him) and Remus founded a city. 15. Remus and (he, him) quarreled; Romulus won. 16. The city is named after (he, him), not Remus. 17. (Us, We) can read about the beginning of Rome in a poem. 18. Virgil, an ancient Roman poet, wrote about (they, them). 19. (He, Him) was the author of the Aeneid, a great epic poem. 20. Mary says that the feats in the poem are exciting to (she, her). Exercise Unit 11 Using in the Nominative and Objective Cases Write each sentence. Change the underlined noun or group of words to a pronoun, and identify it as a subject pronoun or an object pronoun. 1. Readers may be interested in learning a myth of the goddess Echo. 2. Echo, fond of woods and hills, lived in the woods and hills. 3. Echo loved to chat and always wanted to have the last word. 4. One day in the woods, the goddess Juno was looking for the nymphs. 5. Echo and the nymphs were friends. 6. Echo and Juno talked about where the nymphs could be. 7. Echo, by talking, delayed the goddess until the nymphs escaped. 8. Juno discovered Echo s trickery. 9. Echo s trick prompted Juno to punish Echo. 10. Juno said, Juno will now pass sentence on Echo. 11.4 Possessive You often use pronouns to replace nouns that are subjects and nouns that are objects in sentences. You can use pronouns in place of possessive nouns too. A possessive pronoun is a pronoun in the possessive case. It shows who or what has something. A possessive pronoun may take the place of a possessive noun. Read the following sentences. Notice the possessive nouns and the possessive pronouns that replace them. Homer s story is famous. His story is famous. This story is Homer s. This story is his. Possessive pronouns have two forms. One form is used before a noun. The other form is used alone. The chart below shows the two forms of possessive pronouns. Possessive Singular Used Before Nouns my your his, her, its Plural our your their Used Alone mine yours his, hers, its ours yours theirs Possessive pronouns are not written with apostrophes. The pronoun its, for example, shows possession. The word it s, on the other hand, is a contraction of it is. Read the following sentences. Notice the meaning of the words in dark type. Its central character is Odysseus. [possessive pronoun] It s about the adventures of Odysseus. [contraction of It is] 11.4 Possessive 435 Exercise 6 Identifying in the Possessive Case Write each sentence. Underline each possessive pronoun. Then write before a noun or stands alone to tell how the pronoun is used. 1. His adventures interested all types of readers. 2. Its title comes from the name Odysseus. 3. Few characters possess a personality like his. 4. The Romans renamed him Ulysses in their list of heroes. 5. I like that translation better than ours. 6. A romantic poem about Ulysses will engage your attention and mine. 7. It narrates the wanderings of Ulysses in his return from Troy. 8. My literature book describes where the ships landed in Ithaca. 9. The inhabitants wanted to claim the ships as theirs. 10. Does your book describe what other adventures Ulysses has? Exercise 7 Using in the Possessive Case Write each sentence. Replace each underlined word or group of words with the correct possessive pronoun. 1. Athena helped the Greeks, and soon the city of Troy was the Greeks. 2. With Athena s help, the Greeks defeated the Trojans. 3. Athena said to Odysseus, Return to Odysseus s home. 4. The sailors told Odysseus, The sailors ships stand ready. 5. Odysseus saved Odysseus s crew many times. 6. Many adventures were the sailors. 7. Odysseus told his crew, His crews homes are waiting for you. 8. Tell me the reader s own version of how the Trojan War began. 9. Once, three goddesses did not use the goddesses wisdom well. 10. All citizens except one goddess got the citizens invitations. 11. That goddess did not get that goddess s invitation. 12. Where is this goddess s invitation? she asked angrily. 13. For revenge, she tossed a golden apple in the guests midst. 14. The apple s inscription read, For the fairest. 15. Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite each claimed the apple as each one s own. 16. A shepherd named Paris was ordered by Zeus to make Zeus s decision. 17. Hera said to Paris, Great power is Paris s if you pick me. 18. Glory and renown would be Athena s gift to Paris. 19. Paris could have a beautiful wife if he called Aphrodite s name. 20. Paris chose Aphrodite and gave her the contest s prize. 436 Unit 11 11.5 Indefinite An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that does not refer to a particular person, place, or thing. Does anyone know the story of Midas? Most indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural. Some Indefinite Singular another everybody no one both anybody everyone nothing few anyone everything one many anything much somebody others each neither someone several either nobody something Plural The indefinite pronouns all, any, most, none, and some can be singular or plural, depending on the phrase that follows them. When an indefinite pronoun is used as the subject of a sentence, the verb must agree with it in number. Everyone discusses the plot. [singular] Both talk about King Minos. [plural] All of mythology is about beliefs and ideals. [singular] All of the myths are about beliefs and ideals. [plural] Possessive pronouns often have indefinite pronouns as their antecedents. In such cases, the pronouns must agree in number. Note that in the first example the intervening prepositional phrase does not affect the agreement. Each of the characters has his or her motive. Several have conflict with their rivals Indefinite 437 Exercise 8 Using Indefinite Write each sentence. Use the word in parentheses that correctly completes the sentence. Underline the indefinite pronoun and write whether it is singular or plural. 1. Many (knows, know) the tale of Midas. 2. Few (has, have) more gold than King Midas. 3. Some of the gods, however, (possesses, possess) more gold than the king. 4. One of them (is, are) the object of Midas s jealousy; he is Apollo, the sun god. 5. Others (punishes, punish) mortals who are jealous of the gods, but not Apollo. 6. Anything (is, are) yours, Apollo tells Midas. 7. In mythology someone may be granted (his or her, their) wish. 8. No one (thinks, think) harm will come of Midas s wish that all he touches turns to gold. 9. Several wish (his or her, their) fate were the same as Midas s. 10. Everybody (know, knows) that Midas meant no harm. 11. All of Midas s gold (bring, brings) him little happiness. 12. Several of life s joys (is, are) taken away from Midas. 13. One of his touches (is, are) fatal to any living thing. 14. Midas touches his daughter; each of his other children (is, are) safe. 15. All of his food (turn, turns) to gold, and so he cannot eat. 16. Soon Midas regrets his wish; nothing retains (its, their) life once he touches it. 17. Nothing (is, are) more precious than life, Midas admits, not even gold. 18. Apollo forgives Midas; all of the golden objects regain (its, their) original form. 19. All of life (is, are) now a pleasure for Midas. 20. Many now (think, thinks) the name Midas means rich man. Exercise Unit 11 Using Indefinite Correctly Write each sentence. Use the correct indefinite pronoun. 1. (Each, All) of Zeus s brothers was asleep in his own bed. 2. Nearby were many giants; (several, one) raised their voices. 3. The brothers awoke; (everybody, all) jumped from their beds. 4. Typhon was (one, many) of the giants; his voice was loudest. 5. (Both, One) had one hundred arms and breathed fire from his nose. 6. The brothers and giants battled; (each, most) fought his best. 7. The giants lost; (all, either) of them took their punishment. 8. (All, Everybody) were imprisoned under the island of Sicily. 9. (Much, Others) of the island moves; its ground quakes. 10. (Another, Many) blow their breath up through the mountain. 11.6 Reflexive and Intensive Reflexive and intensive pronouns are formed by adding -self or - selves to certain personal and possessive pronouns. Reflexive and Intensive Singular myself yourself himself, herself, itself Plural ourselves yourselves themselves REFLEXIVE PRONOUN Sometimes hisself is mistakenly used for himself and theirselves for themselves. Avoid using hisself and theirselves. A reflexive pronoun refers to a noun or another pronoun and indicates that the same person or thing is involved. The woman found herself a book of folk tales. REFLEXIVE PRONOUN An intensive pronoun is a pronoun that adds emphasis to a noun or pronoun already named. George himself bought a copy of American Tall Tales. He himself paid for the book. Never use reflexive and intensive pronouns as the subject of a sentence or as the object of a verb or preposition. Roy and I read a tale. [not Roy and myself ] It intrigued Roy and me. [not Roy and myself ] 11.6 Reflexive and Intensive 439 Exercise 10 Identifying Reflexive and Intensive Read each sentence. Write each reflexive and intensive pronoun. Then write whether each pronoun is a reflexive or intensive pronoun. 1. Today occupy yourselves by reading the legend of King Arthur. 2. The legend itself may be based on historical evidence. 3. Arthur s mother admired herself for giving birth to such a son. 4. Arthur s father himself was the elected sovereign of Britain. 5. Arthur himself is said to have had twelve victories in battle. 6. In the last battle, his armies outdid themselves. 7. They were very effective, and Arthur himself honored them. 8. His people considered themselves lucky to be living in peace. 9. The country itself was peaceful for twenty years. 10. Then Arthur s nephew Modred showed himself to be a traitor. Exercise 11 Using Reflexive and Intensive Correctly Write each sentence. Use the correct pronoun in parentheses. Write whether the pronoun is a reflexive, intensive, subject, or object pronoun. 1. I recently bought (me, myself) a book about Paul Bunyan. 2. (He, Himself) is a legendary giant lumberjack of the north woods. 3. The book (it, itself) is a collector s item. 4. The imaginative legends provide (us, ourselves) with a sense of folk tradition. 5. Perhaps settlers on the frontier would tell (them, themselves) these stories. 6. My friends and (I, myself) find the legends amusing. 7. Paul Bunyan (he, himself) has a good sense of humor. 8. (We, Ourselves) call Paul Bunyan s adventures tall tales. 9. The students bought (theirselves, themselves) a copy of the tales. 10. In the tales, Bunyan forms much of America (it, itself). 11. (He, Himself) digs Washington s Puget Sound. 12. The lumberjacks thank (him, himself) for his help. 13. Now the logs (they, themselves) float easily to the mills. 14. The giant blue ox, Babe, makes (it, itself) Bunyan s friend. 15. Bunyan gives (it, itself) many gifts during their friendship. 16. The Great Lakes (they, themselves) are Babe s drinking water. 17. The north woods (them, themselves) are in the United States and Canada. 18. (I, Myself) know one story about Paul Bunyan. 19. (It, Itself) tells how the ten thousan
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