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14-31037 - Plaintiffs' Reply Brief

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[Document: 00512830785] Plaintiffs-Appellants' Reply Brief
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  No. 14-31037 In the United States Court of ppeals for the Fifth Circuit    _________ J ONATHAN P.   R OBICHEAUX ;   D EREK P ENTON ;   N  ADINE B LANCHARD ; and C OURTNEY B LANCHARD ,   Plaintiffs –   Appellants v. J  AMES D.   C  ALDWELL , in his official capacity as the Louisiana Attorney General, also known as Buddy Caldwell, Defendant –   Appellee J ONATHAN P.   R OBICHEAUX ;   D EREK P ENTON ;   N  ADINE B LANCHARD ;   C OURTNEY B LANCHARD ;   R OBERT W ELLES ;   and G  ARTH B EAUREGARD ,   Plaintiffs –   Appellants v. D EVIN G EORGE , in his official capacity as the State Registrar and Center Director at Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals; T IM B  ARFIELD , in his official capacity as the Louisiana Secretary of Revenue; K   ATHY K  LIEBERT , in her official capacity as the Louisiana Secretary of Health and Hospitals, Defendants –   Appellees   F ORUM FOR E QUALITY L OUISIANA  ,   I NCORPORATED ;   J  ACQUELINE M.   B RETTNER ;   M.   L  AUREN B RETTNER ;   N ICHOLAS J.    V  AN S ICKELS ;    A  NDREW S.   B OND ;   H ENRY L  AMBERT ;   R.   C  AREY B OND ;   L.   H  AVARD S COTT ,   III;   and S ERGIO M  ARCH P RIETO , Plaintiffs –   Appellants   v. T IM B  ARFIELD , in his official capacity as Secretary of the Louisiana Department of Revenue; D EVIN G EORGE , in his official capacity as Louisiana State Registrar, Defendants –   Appellees     ——————   On Appeal from the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana, Case Nos. 2:13-cv-5090, 2:14-cv-97, 2:14-cv-327 The Honorable Martin Leach-Cross Feldman, District Judge  ———————    R EPLY B RIEF OF A PPELLANTS   (Counsel Listed on Inside Cover) Case: 14-31037 Document: 00512830785 Page: 1 Date Filed: 11/07/2014  K ENNETH D.   U PTON  J R . Lead Attorney P AUL D.   C ASTILLO   L  AMBDA L EGAL D EFENSE AND E DUCATION F UND ,   I NC .   3500 Oak Lawn Avenue, Suite 500 Dallas, TX 75219 T: 214-219-8585, F: 214-219-4455 kupton@lambdalegal.org pcastillo@lambdalegal.org  S USAN L.   S OMMER  K AREN L.   L OEWY  O MAR G ONZALEZ -P AGAN   L  AMBDA L EGAL D EFENSE AND E DUCATION F UND ,   I NC . 120 Wall Street, 19th Floor New York, NY 10005 T: 212-809-8585, F: 212-809-0055 ssommer@lambdalegal.org  kloewy@lambdalegal.org ogonzalez-pagan@lambdalegal.org C AMILLA B.   T AYLOR   L  AMBDA L EGAL D EFENSE AND E DUCATION F UND ,   I NC . 105 West Adams, Suite 2600 Chicago, Illinois 60603 T: 312-663-4413, F: 312-663-4307 ctaylor@lambdalegal.org  Counsel for All Plaintiffs-  Appellants J.   D ALTON C OURSON  L ESLI D.   H ARRIS  S TONE P IGMAN W  ALTHER W ITTMANN ,   L.L.C.   546 Carondelet Street New Orleans, LA 70130 T: 504-581-3200, F: 504-581-3361 dcourson@stonepigman.com lharris@stonepigman.com   Counsel for Plaintiffs-Appellants Forum for Equality Louisiana, Inc., Jacqueline Brettner, Lauren Brettner, Nicholas Van Sickels, Andrew Bond, Henry Lambert, Carey Bond, L. Havard Scott, III, and Sergio March Prieto R ICHARD G.   P ERQUE   L  AW O FFICE OF R ICHARD G.   P ERQUE   700 Camp Street New Orleans, LA 70130 T: 504-524-3306, F: 504-529-4179 richard@perquelaw.com Counsel for Plaintiffs-Appellants Jonathan P. Robicheaux, Derek Penton, Courtney Blanchard, and Nadine Blanchard    S COTT J.   S PIVEY   L  ANDRY &   S PIVEY    320 N. Carrollton Ave, Suite 101 New Orleans, LA 70119 T: 504-297-1236, F: 888-502-3935 scott@spiveyesq.com Counsel for Plaintiffs-Appellants Garth Beauregard and Robert Welles    Case: 14-31037 Document: 00512830785 Page: 2 Date Filed: 11/07/2014  i TABLE OF CONTENTS  TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................... i TABLE OF AUTHORITIES .................................................. iii  ARGUMENT IN REPLY ......................................................... 1 I. BOTH WINDSOR  AND  SCHUETTE   UNDERSCORE THE CONSTITUTIONAL LIMITS ON LOUISIANA’S POWER TO REGULATE MARRIAGE. ............................................. 4 II. THE RIGHT AT ISSUE IN THIS CASE IS THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT TO MARRY, NOT A “NEW” RIGHT TO “SAME -SEX MARRIAG E.”  .......... 13 III. LOUISIANA’S MARRIAGE BAN IS SUBJECT TO HEIGHTENED SCRUTINY UNDER THE EQUAL PROTECTION GUARANTEE. ...................... 18  A. This Court Should Apply Heightened Scrutiny Because Louisiana’s Marriage Ban Classifies on the Basis of Sexual Orientation. ......................................................... 19 B. Classifications Based on Sexual Orientation Bear the Hallmarks of Those Warranting Heightened Scrutiny. ...................... 21 C. The Marriage Ban Warrants Heightened Scrutiny Because It Discriminates on the Basis of Gender. .................................................. 28 Case: 14-31037 Document: 00512830785 Page: 3 Date Filed: 11/07/2014  ii 1. Louisiana’s Marriage Ban Facially Classifies on the Basis of Gender  . ............. 28 2. Louisiana’s Marriage Ban Also Discriminates on the Basis of Gender Because It Requires Adherence To Gender Stereotypes  . ................................... 30 IV. LOUISIANA’S PROFFERED JUSTIFICATIONS CANNOT SURVIVE EVEN RATIONAL BASIS REVIEW. ...................................................................... 31  A. “ Linking Children to Their Biological Parents” Cannot Justify the Ba n. ....................... 32 B. The Marriage Ban Cannot Be Justified by an Interest in Deference to the Democratic Process. ............................................ 40 CONCLUSION ...................................................................... 43 CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE .............................................. 45 ECF FILING STANDARD CERTIFICATION ................................................................. 46 CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE ...................................... 47 Case: 14-31037 Document: 00512830785 Page: 4 Date Filed: 11/07/2014
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