164479980 SPM Physics Definition List (1)

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  Chapter 1: Introduction to Physics Physical quantities QUANTITIES that are measurable Base quantities PHYSICAL QUANTITIES that cannot be defined in terms of other physical quantities but has its own definition Derived quantities PHYSICAL QUANTITIES that are derived from base quantities by multiplication or d ivision or both Scientific notation/ standard form POWERS of the base number 10 to show a very large or small number Prefixes GROUP OF LETTERS placed at the beginning of a word to modify its meaning, which act as multipliers Scalar quantity QUANTITY which has only magnitude or size (time, temperature, mass, volume, dist ance, density, power) Vector quantity QUANTITY which has both magnitude or size and direction (force, velocity, displa cement, acceleration, momentum) Error DIFFERENCE between actual value of a quantity and the value obtained in measurem ent Systematic errors CUMULATIVE ERRORS that can be corrected, if the errors are known. (zero error, i ncorrect calibration of measuring instrument) Random errors ERRORS that arise from unknown and unpredictable variations in condition, and wi ll produce a different error every time. Random errors are caused by factors that are beyond the control of o bservers.(human limitations, lack of sensitivity, natural errors, wrong technique) Zero error ERROR that arises when the measuring instrument does not start from exactly zero  Parallax error ERROR in reading an instrument because the observer s eyes and the pointer are not in a line perpendicular to the plane of scale Measurement PROCESS of determining value of a quantity using a scientific instrument with a standard scale Consistency ABILITY to register the same reading when a measurement is repeated (improve minates parallax error, greater care, not detective instrument) Accuracy DEGREE to which a measurement represents the actual value (improve repeat readings, avoid parallax/zero error, high accuracy instrument) eliSensitivity ABILITY to detect quickly a small change in the value of a measurement (thermome ter thin wall bulb, narrow capillary) Inferences EARLY CONCLUSION that you draw from an observation or event using information th at you already have on it Hypothesis GENERAL STATEMENT that is assumed to be true regarding the relationship between the manipulated variable and responding variable  Chapter 2: Forces and Motion Distance how far a body travels during motion Displacement CHANGE IN POSITION of an object from its initial position in a specified directi on Speed RATE OF CHANGE of distance Velocity RATE OF CHANGE of displacement Mass MEASURE of an object s inertia AMOUNT of matter in the object Acceleration RATE OF CHANGE of velocity Inertia PROPERTY of matter that causes it to resist any change in its motion or state of rest Momentum PRODUCT of mass and velocity Force pulling or a pushing ACTION on an object Impulsive force LARGE FORCE which acts over a very short time interval RATE OF CHANGE in momentum Gravity FORCE srcinated from centre of the Earth that pulls all objects towards the gro und Free fall FALLING of an object without encountering any resistance from a height towards t he earth with an acceleration due to gravity  Forces in equilibrium An object is said to be in a state of equilibrium when forces act upon an object and it remains stationary or moves at a constant velocity Resultant force SINGLE FORCE which combines two or more forces which act on an object Work Work is done when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force . Energy CAPACITY of a system to do work Gravitational PE ENERGY STORED in the object because of its height above the earth surface Elastic PE ENERGY STORED in the object as a result of stretching or compressing it Kinetic energy ENERGY possessed by a moving object Power RATE at which work is done or energy is changed and transferred Efficiency ABILITY of an electrical appliance to transform energy from one form to another without producing useless energy or wastage Elasticity PROPERTY of an object that enables it to return to its srcinal shape and dimens ions after an applied force is removed Spring constant FORCE needed to extend a spring per unit length Elastic limit MAXIMUM STRETCHING FORCE which can be applied to an elastic material before it c eases to be elastic

jagan hod

Jul 23, 2017
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