18th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

18th Division (Imperial Japanese Army), military history
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  18th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)1 18th Division (Imperial Japanese Army) The 18th Division ( €  18 ã    ‚     Dai-juhachi Shidan ) was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. Its callsign was the Chrysanthemum Division ( ƒ    „    ‚     Kikuhei-dan ). History The 18th Division was formed in Kurume, Ky€sh€ on 13 November 1907, together with the 17th Division, as part of the post Russo-Japanese War expansion of the standing Japanese military. In World War I it was strengthened by anadditional infantry regiment (the 29th) and given an independent command in the siege of the German colony of Tsingtao in the Shandong peninsula, China. Abolished at the end of World War I, it was revived for participation inthe Siberian Intervention.However, in 1925, it was again dissolved as one of the four divisions cancelled by Minister of War Ugaki Kazushigeas part of a cost-saving measure during the Kato Takaaki administration.The 18th Division was resurrected in September 1937, and assigned to the 10th Army with the start of the SecondSino-Japanese War. It took part in the Battle of Shanghai. As part of the China Expeditionary Army, it participatedin the Battle of Nanjing (and subsequent Nanjing Massacre), and various campaigns throughout China, cumulating inthe Canton Operation of 1938.In 1941 the division was under the command of Lieutenant-General Renya Mutaguchi. It was re-assigned to the 25thArmy (which was under the command of General Yamashita Tomoyuki). It participated in the invasion of Malayaand Singapore. Afterwards, it was transferred to the Japanese Fifteenth Army and the Burma front, where it sufferedover 3000 casualties from food poisoning and malaria. In 1942, the division's Kawaguchi Detachment, comprisingthe 35th Infantry Brigade and 124th Infantry Regiment, was detached and sent to Guadalcanal. There, it took heavylosses in the battles of Edson's Ridge and Henderson Field.Late in 1943, Mutaguchi was promoted, and replaced in command of the division by Lieutenant-General ShinichiTanaka. Transferred to the Japanese Thirty-Third Army, and operations in northern Burma, 18th Division foughtagainst the American-led Chinese divisions advancing on Mogaung and Myitkyina, and against the British Chinditsoperating behind their lines. Although sufferering heavy losses, the division nevertheless inflicted many casualtiesand imposed severe delays on the Allies.In the aftermath of the disastrous invasion of India in 1944, Lieutenant-General Tanaka exchanged appointmentswith Lieutenant-General Eitaro Naka, formerly Chief of Staff at Burma Area Army. In the 1945 campaigning season,the division once again lost many thousands of men in the Battle of Central Burma, particularly at the Battle of Meiktila south of Mandalay. It ended the war in southern Burma.Of the 31,444 men sent to Burma, more than 20,000 did not make it home to Japan. Organization The srcinal Order of Battle of the 18th Division included:ã55th Infantry Regiment (Omura)ã56th Infantry Regiment (Kurume)ã114th Infantry Regiment (Fukuoka)ãã13th Rapid Response Battalionãã21st Heavy Field Artillery Battalionãã18th Mountain Artillery Regimentãã12th Construction Regimentãã12th Transport Regiment.  18th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)2Reorganized as a square division in World War I, at the time of the Siege of Tsingtao, in 1914 it had a strength of 23,000 men. It was commanded by Lieutenant-General Mitsuomi Kamio, its 23rd Infantry Brigade by Major GeneralYamada and its 24th Infantry Brigade by Major General Horinehi.18th Divisionãã23rd Infantry Brigadeãã46th Infantry Regimentãã55th Infantry Regimentãã24th Infantry Brigadeãã48th Infantry Regimentãã56th Infantry Regimentãã22nd Cavalry Regimentãã24th Field Artillery Regimentãã18th Engineer BattalionIt was reformed in 1937 as a square division for the Second Sino-Japanese War.18th Divisionãã23rd Infantry Brigadeãã55th Infantry Regimentãã56th Infantry Regimentãã35th Infantry Brigadeãã114th Infantry Regimentãã124th Infantry Regimentãã18th Mountain Artillery Regimentãã22nd Cavalry Battalionãã12th Engineer Regimentãã12th Transport Regiment Reference and further reading ãMadej, W. Victor,  Japanese Armed Forces Order of Battle, 1937-1945 [2 vols], Allentown, PA: 1981ãJon Latimer,  Burma: The Forgotten War  , London: John Murray, 2004 ISBN 0-7195-6576-6ãTsingtao Campaign by Colin Denis [1] References [1]http:/     /    www.   gwpda.   org/    naval/    tsingtao.   htm  Article Sources and Contributors3 Article Sources and Contributors 18th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)   Source : Contributors : Alansohn, Asiaticus, Bendono, Bomzibar, Carom, Chris the speller,Cla68, Coyets, Farside6, HLGallon, Jaraalbe, JeltLuthor, Luna Santin, MChew, NotWith, Noveltyghost, Staygyro, 5 anonymous edits License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 // 
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