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2 molecules of Hydrogen gas react with 1 molecule of Oxygen gas to form 2 molecules of water

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NUCLEAR REACTIONS POGIL 1 PART 1: BASICS OF CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Interpreting Chemical Reaction Equations A Chemical reaction occurs when chemicals interact to form (or break apart into) new chemicals. We
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NUCLEAR REACTIONS POGIL 1 PART 1: BASICS OF CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Interpreting Chemical Reaction Equations A Chemical reaction occurs when chemicals interact to form (or break apart into) new chemicals. We represent chemical reactions by writing chemical equations. Chemical equations shows the REACTANTS (starting chemicals) on the LEFT side and the PRODUCTS (ending chemicals) on the RIGHT side. The REACTANTS and PRODUCTS are separated in the center by an arrow (or pair of arrows ) that indicates a change in the chemicals has occurred. Sample Reaction: 2 molecules of Hydrogen gas react with 1 molecule of Oxygen gas to form 2 molecules of water REACTANTS PRODUCTS + 2H2 + O2 2H2O COEFFICIENT MOLECULAR FORMULA When writing chemical equations, we use the molecular formula for a chemical rather than writing out the entire name. The chemical formula shows the symbols of each atom in the chemical (eg, H for hydrogen). If a chemical is made of more than one atom, the formula will have the symbols for each atom, as well as the number of each type of atom (written as subscript). For example, water is made of 2 hydrogen atoms that are bound to one oxygen atom. The formula for water is H2O. There is a subscript 2 after the H to indicate there are 2 H s. Chemical equations also show the quantity of each type of chemical molecule by including a COEFFICIENT in front of the molecular formula. In the sample reaction, we know that the reactants include TWO hydrogen gas molecules because the coefficient in front of the molecular formula (H2) is a 2. Instructions: Write and sketch the equation in your notebook, then answer the following questions in your notebook. 1. What are the REACTANTS in a chemical reaction? (Define in your notebook) 2. What are the two reactants in the sample reaction? 3. What is the chemical formula for hydrogen gas? 4. How many hydrogen atoms are in one molecule of hydrogen gas? How do you know? 5. What is the chemical formula for oxygen gas? 6. How many oxygen atoms are in one molecule of oxygen gas? How do you know? 7. How many hydrogen gas molecules react with each oxygen gas molecule? How do you know? 8. What are the PRODUCTS in a chemical reaction? (Define in your notebook) 9. What is the product in the sample reaction? 10. How many molecules of water are created during the reaction? How do you know? 11. What symbol is included in a chemical equation to indicate that a reaction has occurred? 12. How many total hydrogen atoms are included in the reactants? 13. How many total hydrogen atoms are included in the products? 14. How many total oxygen atoms are included in the reactants? 15. How many total oxygen atoms are included in the products? 16. What rule could you write about the total number of atoms of an element in the reactants compared to the products of a chemical reaction? 17. Write the chemical equation for the following reactions: a. Two molecules of water undergo a reaction and break apart into 2 molecules of hydrogen gas and 1 molecule of oxygen gas b. One molecule of sodium iodide (NaI) reacts with one molecule of chlorine gas (Cl2) to form 2 molecules of sodium chloride (NaCl) and one molecule of iodide (I2). PART 2: NUCLEAR REACTIONS - FISSION & FUSION Fission and fusion are two nuclear reactions (processes) that alter the nucleus of an atom. Nuclear fission provides the energy in nuclear power plants and fusion is the source of the sun s energy. The use of fission in power plants can help conserve fossil fuels. Without the energy produced by the fusion of hydrogen in the sun, the Earth would quickly change into a cold planet that could not support life as we know it. Transmutation is the transformation of the nucleus of an atom so that the atom is changed from one element into a different element. This can be accomplished through many types of reactions, including fission and fusion. Nuclear transformations always obey two fundamental conservation laws: (1) mass number is conserved and (2) electrical charge is conserved. (Note: Total energy and actual atomic mass are not conserved individually because they can be interconverted according to Einstein's equation, E = mc 2.) NUCLEAR FISSION The process of fission occurs when a nucleus splits into smaller pieces. Fission can be induced by a nucleus capturing slow moving neutrons, which results in the nucleus becoming very unstable. REACTANTS PRODUCTS The following equations represent nuclear fission reactions, where n=neutron. Reaction 1: Reaction 4: Reaction 2: Reaction 5: Reaction 3: Questions: 1. How are the chemical equations for NUCLEAR REACTIONS similar to those for CHEMICAL REACTIONS? 2. How are the chemical equations for NUCLEAR REACTIONS different from those for CHEMICAL REACTIONS? Why? 3. What is Fission? Define and sketch in your notebook. 4. What are the two reactants listed in each of the fission equations listed above? 5. What product is the same for all of the reactions? Do all reactions have the same quantity of this product? 6. Answer the following questions for Reactions 1, 2 and 3 (separately): a. What is the total mass number (sum of atomic masses of all reactants) for the reactants? b. What is the total mass number (sum of atomic masses of all products) for the products? c. What is the total number of protons for all reactants combined? d. What is the total number of protons for all products combined? 7. Based on your responses to question #17, what rule for Fission reactions could you write about the total mass number in the reactants (before the reaction) compared to the products (after the reaction)? 8. What rule for Fission reactions could you write about the total number of protons for the reactants compared to the products? 9. What rule could you write for Fission reactants about the number of reactants compared to the number of products? 10. What other rules could you write about Fission reactions? 11. What is a transmutation? 12. Why is fission considered a transmutation? 13. The fission equations show the production of many different elements, even though each reaction begins with uranium-235 and one neutron. How is this possible? Explain. NUCLEAR FUSION: Fusion occurs when 2 nuclei join together to form a larger nucleus. Fusion is brought about by bringing together two or more small nuclei under conditions of tremendous heat and pressure. (Phillips, Strozak, Wistrom, Glencoe Chemistry p. 766) The following equations represent fusion reactions, where p = proton. Reaction 1: Reaction 2: Reaction 3: Questions: 14. What is fusion? (Define and sketch in your notebook) 15. What is the difference between deuterium,, and tritium,? 16. Similar to the fission reactions, what quantities are conserved (remain the same for both reactants and products)? 17. The fusion equations show the production of atoms of several different elements even though each reaction begins with isotopes of hydrogen. Knowing the starting elements, can someone predict what element will form as a result of a given reaction? Explain why or why not. CONCLUSION: Check your understanding 1. An equation in the model shows the fusion of two deuterium nuclei to form a nucleus of tritium. Suggest another product that might form in this reaction Describe how to find the identity of the species X in the equation: + X What is missing in the following reaction? + 4. An atom of U-235 absorbs a neutron and produces an atom of Sb-125 and four neutrons. Identify the other nuclide (atom) formed in this reaction. Write the equation to support your answer. 5. Identify the following equations as fission or fusion. 6. How did you determine the answers to question 5? Explain. 7. Research: In a fission or fusion reaction, where does the energy come from? Explain. 8. During the 1950 s, when many countries performed above ground tests of nuclear weapons, there was much concern about the radioactive fallout when the by-products of uranium fission landed on populated areas. One major concern dealt with the fallout of radioactive strontium isotopes and a suspected link to increases in leukemia and bone cancer. What part of the body might absorb strontium? Explain your answer.
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