2008_SJW_Prishtina is Everywhere_Beyond-Troublemaking.doc

published in Prishtina is Everywhere / Archis publishers / Berlin / 2008 ‘Balkanization is a geopolitical term originally used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region into smaller regions that are often hostile or
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  Architecture Beyond Troublemaking Srdjan Jovanović Weiss published in Prishtna is Everywhere / Archis publishers / Berlin / 200!Bal"ani#aton is a $eopolitcal %er& ori$inally used %o describe %he process o' 'ra$&en%aton or division o' a re$ion in%o s&aller re$ions %ha% are o(en hostle or non)cooperatve wi%h each o%her* +ecen%ly %he %er& has been used in A&erican urban plannin$ %o describe %he process o' how $a%ed co&&unites are crea%ed* ,here are also a-e&p%s %o use %he %er& Bal"ani#aton in a positve way e.uatn$ Bal"ani#aton wi%h %he need 'or sus%enance o' a $roup or socie%y* ,he %er& used %o be hostle bu% recen% usa$es show %he po%ental o' Bal"ani#aton vis))vis de&ocratc processes*1 h-p3//en*wi"ipedia*or$/wi"i/Bal"ani#aton4,he %e5%1s &ain thrust  is %o %race %he alle$ory o' Bal"ani#aton and %he his%ory o' i%s &eanin$ 'ro& ne$atve %o positve* Wha% 'ollows below does no% ai& %o be pole&ical bu% ra%her opera%es as a 'ra&ewor" 'or discourse and 'ur%her research durin$ i%s develop&en% as a capi%al in %he &a"in$ in %he Wes%ern Bal"ans* 6a"in$ a capi%al ci%y &ay be one o' %he &os% positve aspec%s o' Bal"ani#aton* Bal"ani#aton is an un7nished projec% analo$ical %o 6odernis& i%sel' and i%s e5pressions are sou$h% in buil% space* Bu% while i%s his%ory is pac"ed wi%h ne$atve e&oton and in%erpre%aton i%s reali%y in o%her worlds %han i%sel' and i%s 'u%ure po%ental are seen as positve*,he parallel ai& here is %o re)address %he %er& !,urbo 8ol" cul%ure1* As %he t%le o' %his publicaton su$$es%s %he cul%ure 7nally &ay have i%s e5pression in %he ci%y1s urbanis&* ,urbo8ol" cul%ure and as a resul% ,urbo Archi%ec%ure are already well "nown %o &ar" %he %roublin$area o' %he Wes%ern Bal"ans in an i&a$e* 9  ,urbo Archi%ec%ure born in %he Wes%ern Bal"ans is now seen bo%h as an archi%ec%ure o' %he crisis and archi%ec%ure %ha% provides a way ou% o' %he pas% crisis* ,he &ain !.ualites1 o' ,urbo archi%ec%ure were ur$ency and %he power o' ille$ali%y and speed o' solidi7caton in space* All %hree aspec%s are in &any ways a way o' loo"in$ beyond %he &oral $rounds and critcal s%udies o' %he politcs in %he Wes%ern Bal"ans* :e% in &any ways loo"in$ beyond $ives us a chance %o es%ablish a contnui%y o' %he $li%#y pos%)&odernis% ou%co&e in archi%ec%ure and %he ci%y wi%h %he ori$ins o' liberal socialis& in 'or&er :u$oslavia* Especially %his contnui%y can be drawn 'ro& :u$oslavia1s 'or&er s%a%e policy o' !de)e%at#aton1 ;%he process o' dissolvin$ %he natonal s%a%e across &ultnatonal %erri%ory< which $ave creatve powers %o %he local social uni%s over %he uni%aris% course o' a capi%al ci%y* pa$e 9 o'  / Archi%ec%ure Beyond ,rouble&a"in$ / Srdjan Jovanović Weiss  =n %he o%her hand %he pre75  Turbo  has nei%her a ne$atve nor a positve &eanin$> nei%her value jud$&en% nor voliton are ascribed %o i%* ?n %echnolo$y %he econo&y %he car indus%ry and %he $lobal &ar"e% %he $eneral &eanin$ o'  Turbo  has %a"en on a positve %one* ?n %he car indus%ry  Turbo  &eans pushin$ %he shell o' an e5istn$ car &odel %o per'or& be-er and 'as%er so as no% %o 'all behind in co&petton* ?n 'ac%  Turbo  is inheren%ly a neu%ral %er&* By de7niton i% is a si%uaton)speci7c %er&> i% does no% necessarily conno%e a be-er or worse conditon only s%ron$er a&pli7ed enhanced per'or&ance*  Turbo  depends on %he con%e5%> i% is 'ed by %he e5istn$ circu&s%ances %o push jus% beyond li&i%atons* ?n Serbia under %he oil e&bar$o in an econo&y under sanctons and $oin$ bac"wards  Turbo  &ar"ed accelera%ed decline @ a perverse speedin$ up %owards %he approachin$ crash* Bu% %oday in %he wa"e o' slow bu% i&&anen% de&ocracy  Turbo  capi%ali#es on i%s accu&ula%ed powers 'as%er %han any o%her cul%ural niche*+e%urnin$ %o a &o&en% o' recen% his%ory3 As %he republics o' 'or&er :u$oslavia spli% away 'ro& one ano%her in %he 90s @ wi%h ye% &ore separaton in 200 @ &any displaced people &arched in desperaton 'ro& unpro%ec%ed enclaves in %he directon o' new ho&eland s%a%es*,here li'e had %o be s%ar%ed anew* Suppor%ed by relatves and e5ploi%ed by war pro7%eers &any were pro&p%ed %o build %heir own ho&es and businesses ra%her %han wai% 'or %he natonal sys%e&s %o help ou%* Buildin$s $rew on %op o' roo's roo&s popped up over alleys enor&ous %erraces $rabbed 'or space roo's s%re%ched up hi$her %han allowed* ,his new archi%ec%ure appeared rando& and 'ree @ une5pec%ed o(en un7nished bu% hi$hly innovatve* As an unplanned resul% o' %he 'all o' :u$oslavia de%ached cites in %he Wes%ern Bal"ans 'el% 'reed %o e5e&pli'y a new ident%y* Prishtna 2  'or e5a&ple which $rew rapidly in populaton durin$ %he Bal"an crisis o' %he 90s decora%ed i%s &ain s%ree% wi%h a &inia%ure S%a%ue o' iber%y and na&ed %he s%ree% Willia& JeCerson Dlin%on as a %ribu%e %o %he A&erican presiden%1s suppor% o' %heir positon a$ains% %he %hen :u$oslav presiden% Slobodan 6iloević* Bel$rade &eanwhile buil% e5%ensive roo(op additons rese&blin$ &ushroo&s a &assive new =r%hodo5 shrine and a $li%#y 7eld o' ,urbo Archi%ec%ure in a &i5 o' hi$h)%ech and neo)By#antu& s%yles* ,he %own o' 6os%ar renova%ed i%s 'a&ous =-o&an)era brid$e des%royed by Bosnian Droa%s in 9F> %he ci%y also buil% a sculp%ure o' Bruce ee perhaps %he only 'a&ous 7$ure no% %o have har&ed any o' %he %hree sides in %he recen% war* ,han"s %o Serbian re'u$ees 'ro& Bosnia Droata and Gosovo Hovi Sad has doubled in populaton and privat#ed a now rich Ianube river coas%line na&ed alley o' ,hieves* S"opje1s new Kuorescen% cross %ha% overloo"s %he ci%y is jus% one &ore in %he vibran% &i5 o' +o&an By#antu& =-o&an Do&&unis% and Hew =r%hodo5 Dhristan &onu&en%s* ?n ,irana arts%) pa$e 2 o'  / Archi%ec%ure Beyond ,rouble&a"in$ / Srdjan Jovanović Weiss  cu&)&ayor Edi +a&a pain%s buildin$s in bri$h% colors and abs%rac% pa-erns while in jubljana leadin$ archi%ec%ure 7r&s i&i%a%e ,irana1s lively pa-erns o' colors in %heir 'aLade desi$ns 'or hi$h archi%ec%ural buildin$ projec%s* ?n s%ar" con%ras% Sarajevo renova%ed by Europeans and A&ericans has beco&e a 'or$o-en %own hur% by %he e5%ensive brain)drain and now sin"in$ in%o apa%hy* Hone%heless %he ci%y recen%ly 'ound i%sel' a% %he 'ore'ron% o' %he 7l& indus%ry and a %es% 7eld 'or public)priva%e inves%&en%s in hi$h cul%ure and projec%s in reli$ious %olerance* ?% is %he elusive i' no% illusive na%ure o' Bal"ani#aton %o$e%her wi%h %he powers o' ,urbo cul%ure %ha% we should %han" 'or %his ocean o' s&all inventve and 'unny archi%ec%ural variatons @ hilarious new villas o' rando& s%yles %ha% parade drea&)co&e)%rue houses 'ra$&en%ed cites creatve borders and o%her innovatons o' evasive le$ali%y* Jus% %a"e %he endless variabili%y o' %he desi$n o' %he 'ences across %he Wes%ern Bal"ans used %o de&arca%e priva%e @ bo%h le$ally and ille$ally owned @ proper%y* ?%s array o' bo%h 'unctonali%y and absurdi%y shows %he unres%rained 'reedo& o' sel')distncton and ident%y %ha% by)passes any $ivens and nor&s and &ay even reach a popular urban ar% level @ &a"in$ 'ences jus% 'or %he 'ences1 sa"e*We !love1 %hese e5a&ples because %hey are u$ly)beaut'ul sel')&ade opt&istc and 'ull o' ener$y* We respec% %he& because %hey are a 'unny al%ernatve %o %he sys%e&atc natonalis% #eal o' pos%)socialis% coun%ries which projec%s e%hnic or reli$ious ident%y as natonal s%a%e ident%y as well as a cul%ural one* ,his #eal includes bo%h =r%hodo5 and Da%holic Dhristani%y as well as ?sla&* ,hese hu&orous al%ernatves are e&bedded in %he politcal sys%e&s rushin$%o solidi'y natonal ident%y and so are head and shoulders above %he& in cons%ructn$ %he las% %ouches in %he pos%)socialis% landscape* ,he pos%)socialis% landscape would no% be so called i' i% were no% 'or %he sys%e&atc oppositon %o socialis% archi%ec%ure and urbanis&* As in ,urbo Archi%ec%ure which bur$eoned as a vehe&en% reacton a$ains% clean &odernis% 'or&s ,urbo Mrbanis& &ay be risin$ a$ains% %he clari%y o' %he urban versus rural %erri%ory* ,hus i% &ay be %ha% %he rise o' radical 'orces will be seen pri&arily in %he e5pression o' a&bi$ui%y and in %he unchar%ed course in any 'or& any in%erventon*,hou$h Bal"ani#aton is a %er& o' relatvely recen% derivaton %he pheno&enon e5%ends several cen%uries in%o %he pas%* 8ra$&en%aton o' %he By#antne E&pire in%o e&er$in$ e%hnic "in$do&s &ar"ed %he entre 9N %h  cen%ury on %he Bal"an Peninsula* ,he developin$ =-o&an E&pire sei#ed lar$e par%s o' By#antne %erri%ories bu% i% had %o wi%hdraw under %he pressure pa$e O o'  / Archi%ec%ure Beyond ,rouble&a"in$ / Srdjan Jovanović Weiss  o' i%s own 'all* ,his caused %he cons%an% reali$n&en% o' e&er$in$ local borders while %he i&pac% o' %he e&pire1s 'ull re%rea% was bein$ 'el%* ,he ne5% wor"in$ soluton was %he e&pire es%ablished by %he Serbian aris%ocracy %he Gin$do& o' :u$oslavia as a &odern soluton %o uni'y %he 'ra$&en%s> i% 'ailed durin$ World War ??* ,he las% politcal soluton 'or %he uni%y o' %he %erri%ory was co&&unis%* ,he Socialis% 8ederal +epublic o' :u$oslavia &as%er&inded by %he Slovene sel')%au$h% philosopher Edvard Gardelj las%ed hal' a decade a li-le less %han i%s crea%ors &ana$ed %o do* owever %he 'all o' %his las% e&pire in %he 90s shows i%s t$h% politcal relatonship %o bo%h &oderni#aton and 6odernis& as i%s e5pression* ,hus Bal"ani#aton can be seen as %he contnui%y o' partculari%y in 6odernis& and i%s ideolo$ical'ra$&en%aton* ,here is a co&&on percepton in his%ory boo"s on %he Bal"ans* ?n %he 7rs% !Bal"an War1 in 992 s&all new naton s%a%es which had $a%hered %o$e%her a$ains% %he lon$ do&inaton by %he =-o&an E&pire coopera%ed in an e%hnic cleansin$ o' Slav 6usli&s 'ro& %he Bal"an %erri%ory* !Bal"an War ??1 occurred jus% a year la%er when %he sa&e Bal"an naton s%a%es s.uabbled wi%h one ano%her in %he race %o clai& %erri%ory* Bosnia did no% co&pe%e a% %ha% t&e because o' i%s earlier anne5aton by %he declinin$ Aus%ro)un$arian E&pire which produced %he 7rs% sa'e haven 'or European 6usli&s* ?% was only when pos%)WW? diplo&acy consolida%ed %hese s&all Bal"an natons in%o %he co&pound "in$do&s o' +o&ania and :u$oslavia %ha% %he %er& was laid %o res%* ,he verb Bal"ani#in$ was %hen used in a pejoratve way %o critci#e politcs o' naton)buildin$ which ai& a% a colla$e o' natonal identtes ra%her%han &er$in$ %he& in%o one* ,he colla$e projec%s o' :u$oslavia as well as o' D#echoslova"iawhile suppor%ed by %he in%ernatonal co&&uni%y ca&e %o be deeply critci#ed as projec%s %ha% reached only hal' way %owards %he &a"in$ o' a sin$le do&inan% naton wi%h 'ull ri$h%s 'or &inori%y $roups* A(er a .uie% period which las%ed a lon$ peace'ul $eneraton Bal"ani#aton resur'aced durin$ %he !,hird Bal"an War1 and %he 'all o' :u$oslavia in %he 90s* ,his t&e %he %er& re%urned wi%h &uch &ore s%ren$%h and sophistcaton $oin$ beyond i%s ori$inal &eanin$ and was widely used in %he &edia %o depic% al&os% any process o' disin%e$raton politcal %erri%orial or cul%ural*As a resul% %he ne$atve conno%atons o' %he %er& en%ered %he real& o' speculatve philosophy and novel %rends in liberal capi%alis& %he la-er see"in$ a re&edy %o $lobal collectvis&* Ayn +and in her 9QQ lec%ure Global Balkanization,  pro&o%ed an e5%re&e 'or& o' individualis& as %he only way %o recover 'ro& Bal"ani#aton3 As %o %he s%a$naton under %ribal rule @ %a"e a loo" a% %he Bal"ans* A% %he s%ar% o' %his cen%ury %he Bal"ans was re$arded as %he dis$race o' Europe* Si5 or ei$h% %ribes plus pa$e N o'  / Archi%ec%ure Beyond ,rouble&a"in$ / Srdjan Jovanović Weiss  a nu&ber o' sub)%ribes wi%h unpronounceable na&es were crowded on %he Bal"an Peninsula en$a$in$ in endless wars a&on$ %he&selves or bein$ con.uered by s%ron$er nei$hbors or practcin$ violence 'or %he sa"e o' violence over so&e &icroscopic lan$ua$e diCerences* !Bal"ani#aton1 @ %he brea")up o' lar$er natons in%o e%hnic %ribes @ was used as a pejoratve %er& by European in%ellec%uals o' %he t&e* ,hose sa&e in%ellec%uals were pa%hetcally proud when %hey &ana$ed a(er World War ? %o $lue &os% o' %he Bal"an %ribes %o$e%her in%o %wo lar$er coun%ries3 D#echoslova"ia and :u$oslavia* Bu% %he %ribes never vanished> %hey have been poppin$ up in &inor e5plosions all alon$ and a &ajor one is possible a% any t&e* O  ,oday %he audio 'ro& which %his %e5% is %ranscribed is sold under %he 'ollowin$ &o-o3 Rlobal Bal"ani#aton is !a probin$ e5a&inaton o' %he rise o' &odern %ribalis& in %he Wes%* ?% ident7es %he irratonalis& 'ro& which %he ant)concep% o' e%hnici%y sprin$s*1 N  By creditn$ a &odern a-ribu%e %o Bal"ani#aton %he %er& is eleva%ed in%o %he process o' enli$h%en&en%*,he in%erpre%atons o' Rlobal Bal"ani#aton wen% as 'ar as %o clai& %ha% because Dapi%alis& isan enclosed sys%e& buil% on individual ri$h%s i% is %here'ore %he only wor"in$ soluton %o +acis&* F  ?n so&e &ore elusive e5chan$e wi%hin %he =bjectvis% circle Dapi%alis& is seen as a 'orce %ha% sel')correc%s %he havoc crea%ed by %he 'ailin$ politcs o' &ultcul%uralis&*   6ultplici%y and no% &onoli%hicis& enables %he ne%wor" o' s&all and diCerenta%ed ideolo$ical nodes %o co&ba% %he E&pire* S%udies o' %he positve aspec%s o' e&er$in$ $roup identtes and %he Bal"ani#aton o' cites already e5is%3 E5a&inin$ a ran$e o' econo&ic variables 'or %he ei$h%y)7ve lar$es% M*S* cites over %he period 90@9N i% was 'ound %ha% %hose cites wi%h heavy concen%ratons o' i&&i$ran%s ou%per'or&ed cites wi%h 'ew i&&i$ran%s* Do&pared wi%h low)i&&i$ran%cites hi$h)i&&i$ran% cites had double %he job creaton ra%e hi$her per capi%a inco&es lower pover%y ra%es and 20 percen% less cri&e***,hese 7ndin$s re'u%e %he asserton %ha% %he econo&ic decline o' cites is caused by i&&i$raton> %ha% asserton canno% be %rue because %he M*S* cites in $rea%es% despair %oday @ Ie%roi% Sain% ouisBuCalo +oches%er Rary @ have vir%ually no i&&i$ran%s* Q  Ano%her s%udy $oes even 'ur%her stll wi%hin %he conservatve view o' in%ernatonal politcs positn$ a positve de7niton o' Bal"ani#aton3 Bal"ani#aton is a $eopolitcal shibbole%h conjured up %o ward oC va$ue dan$ers %o all%ha% is $ood in %he world* ,he %er& was used incessan%ly durin$ %he pos%)war years pa$e F o'  / Archi%ec%ure Beyond ,rouble&a"in$ / Srdjan Jovanović Weiss
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