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  Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2018)  7  (3): 2131-2137 2131 Original Research Article   https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.703.250  Genetic Variability and Heritability for Yield and Yield Attributes in Field Bean ( Lablab purpureus  L.) Genotypes S. Sadak Peer, P. Syam Sundar Reddy*, Syed Sadarunnisa, D.S. Reddy and S.R. Pandravada  Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, Dr. Y S R Horticultural University  Anantharajupeta, Dr.Y.S.R Kadapa-516105, A.P., India *Corresponding author ABSTRACT Introduction Field bean (  Lablab purpureus L.) 2n=2x=22, 24 is an important legume vegetable grown all over the country for the fleshy and soft textured green pods, which is a good source of proteins, minerals and dietary fibre. The dry seeds are also used for various vegetable  preparations and foliage of the crop provides hay, silage and green manures. India is the centre of diversity of Field bean and large numbers of indigenous strains are available in India. Although this crop has srcinated in India but very little work has been done for the genetic improvement of yield and quality. A great range of variation exists for the plant and pod characters amongst the accessions grown all over the country. The success of   International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences ISSN: 2319-7706  Volume 7 Number 03 (2018) Journal homepage: http://www.ijcmas.com   Twenty nine genotypes of Field bean (  Lablab purpureus L.) were evaluated to study the genetic variability on yield, yield contributing and related 18 attributes viz.,, days to first flowering, days to 50 per cent flowering, days to first pod set, number of inflorescences  per plant, length of inflorescence (cm), number of pods per inflorescence, length of the pod (cm), width of the pod (cm), days to first pod harvest, days to last pod harvest, weight of 10 green pods (g), number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, seed length (mm), seed width (mm), dry seed yield per plant (g), 100 seed weight (g) and fresh pod yield per  plant. The range, genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance and correlation were calculated. The genotypes showed considerable amount of variability for all the traits. Wide range of variability was recorded for fresh pod yield per  plant, dry seed yield per plant, days to 50 per cent flowering and days to first pod set. On the basis of mean performance, the genotypes, NAIP-BD-ADB-70 and NSJ-186 were found to be superior for almost all the attributes. The genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high (>20%) for fresh pod yield per plant, number of pods  per plant and number of inflorescences per plant. The characters viz. , number of pods per  plant, days to last pod harvest, weight of 10 green pods, dry seed yield per plant and fresh  pod yield per plant had high genetic high heritability coupled with high genetic advance and GA as per cent of mean indicating the predominance of additive gene action.   Keywords Field bean, Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, GCV and PCV  Accepted: 16 February 2018  Available Online:  10 March 2018 Article Info  Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2018)  7  (3): 2131-2137 2132 any breeding programme in general and improvement of specific trait through selection in particular, totally depends upon the genetic variability present in the available germplasm of a particular crop. Since, many of the plant characters are governed by  polygenes and greatly influenced by environmental conditions; the progress of  breeding is, however, conditioned by the magnitude, nature and interrelationship of genotypic and non-genotypic variation. It is very difficult to judge whether observed variability is heritable or due to environment alone. Moreover knowledge of heritability is essential for selection of superior genotypes. Genetic improvement in Field bean is a continuous demand for higher yield and yield attributing characters for different agro-climatic regions. Possibility of achieving improvement in any crop plant depends on the magnitude of genetic variability. Improvement of economic characters like yield through selection is conditioned by the nature and magnitude of variability existing in such populations. Genetic parameters such as genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and  phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) are useful in detecting the amount of variability  present in the germplasm. Heritability estimates along with genetic advance are more helpful in predicting the genetic gain under selection than heritability estimates alone. It helps in determining the influence of environment on the expression of the genotypic variation and reliability of direct selection for fixation of characters in further generations. Hence, an attempt was made with specific objective to examine the genetic  parameters of variability to identify major characters for achieving higher yield. Materials and Methods Twenty nine genotypes of field bean including local check (TFB-1) collected from  NBPGR Regional station, Hyderabad were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications during kharif 2016 at vegetable farm, College of Horticulture, Anantharajupeta, YSR Dist., Andhra Pradesh. Each genotype was planted in single row of 6 m length with a spacing of 1 m between rows and 60 cm between the  plants. All the recommended package of  practices and plant protection measures were followed timely to raise a good crop. Five  plants were randomly taken from each plot to record observations on twenty two yield components except days to first flowering, days to 50 per cent flowering, days to first  pod set and 100 seed weight was recorded on whole plot basis. Analysis of variance was performed following the standard procedure given by Panse and Sukhatme (1967).The phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation (PCV, GCV) were computed as per method described by Burton and Devane (1953). Estimates of genotypic and phenotypic correlation were obtained using the formulae given by Lush (1940). Heritability in broad sense and genetic advance (% of mean) were calculated as per Allard (1960). Results and Discussion Highly significant differences were observed among the genotypes for all the characters indicating presence of sufficient amount of variability in all the characters studied. The mean sum of squares for 18 characters in 28 genotypes and one check variety of dolichos  bean were presented in Table 1. High range was observed for days to 50 % flowering, number of pods per inflorescence, number of inflorescences per plant, duration of harvesting, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, fresh pod yield per  plant and dry seed yield per plant (Table 2). A  Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2018)  7  (3): 2131-2137 2133 variation for these characters is found to be quite high which might be responsible for the wide range in yield potential of different genotypes. A wide range of variation existing for various quantitative traits has also been reported in field bean by Kambale et al., (2002), Ganesh (2005), Lal et al., (2005), Patil and Lad (2007), Rai et al., (2008), Savitha (2008), Chattopadhyay and Dutta (2010) and Verma et al., (2015). The maximum seed yield (209.48 g) was recorded in the NSJ-186, while the minimum seed yield was recorded in IC-446556 (41.45 g). Eleven genotypes recorded significantly more dry seed yield per plant when compared to grand mean. Five of the genotypes recorded significantly more dry seed yield per  plant when compared to the check TFB-1(149.68 g). The fresh pod yield per plant ranged from 136.92 to 701.04 g with a grand mean of 370.92 g. The genotype NAIP-BD-ADB-70 recorded the maximum marketable  pod yield per plant (701.04 g) and the minimum pod yield (136.92 g) was recorded in IC-446556. Eleven genotypes recorded significantly more marketable pod yield per  plant when compared to grand mean. Out of twenty nine genotypes NAIP-BD-ADB-70 and NSJ-186 recorded high fresh pod yield  per plant than the commercial check TFB-1.Similar pattern of variability in germplasm evaluation of different sizes for various horticultural traits in Dolichos bean have earlier been reported by Baswana et al., (1980) and Borah and Shadeque (1992). Table.3  Summary of genetic parameters of variability for various characters in twenty nine field bean genotypes S. No.   Character   PCV (%)   GCV (%)   Heritability   h 2   Genetic Advance   GA as per cent of mean   1   Days to first flowering   M   M   H   M   H   2   Days to 50 per cent flowering   M   M   H   M   H   3   Days to first pod set   M   M   H   M   H   4    No. of inflorescences per  plant   H   M   H   L   H   5   Length of inflorescence (cm)   H   H   H   M   H   6    No. of pods per inflorescence   H   H   H   L   H   7   Length of the pod (cm)   H   H   H   L   H   8   Width of the pod (cm)   M   M   H   L   H   9   Days to first pod harvest   L   L   H   M   M   10   Days to last pod harvest   M   M   H   H   H   11   Weight of 10 green pods (g)   H   H   H   H   H   12    No. of pods per plant   H   H   H   H   H   13    No. of seeds per pod   M   M   H   L   H   14   Seed length (mm)   M   L   M   L   L   15   Seed width (mm)   M   L   L   L   L   16   Dry seed yield per plant (g)   H   H   H   H   H   17   100 seed weight (g)   M   M   H   L   H   18   Fresh pod yield per plant (g)   H   H   H   H   H    Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2018)  7  (3): 2131-2137 2134 Table.1  Analysis of variance for 18 yield and yield attributes in twenty nine genotypes of field bean S.No Character Mean sum of squares Replications (df = 2) Treatments (df = 28) Error (df = 56) 1 Days to first flowering 237.68** 202.78** 3.39 2 Days to 50% flowering 247.72** 218.22** 3.83 3 Days to first pod set 299.13** 230.73 4.46 4  Number of inflorescences per plant 24.30** 53.64** 0.40 5 Length of inflorescence (cm) 32.98** 97.53** 0.56 6  Number of pods per inflorescence 2.59** 12.10** 0.03 7 Length of the pod (cm) 0.13** 10.95** 0.04 8 Width of the pod (cm) 0.02 0.16** 0.01 9 Days to first pod harvest 436.53** 257.97** 6.09 10 Days to last pod harvest 1141.68** 1152.42** 15.22 11 Weight of 10 green pods 44.17** 371.80 1.01 12  Number of pods per plant 1045.30** 9193.93** 18.67 13  Number of seeds per pod 0.66** 0.49** 0.01 14 Seed length (mm) 0.53 2.74** 0.89 15 Seed width (mm) 0.64 1.09** 0.57 16 Dry seed yield per plant (g) 7678.51** 5296.59** 106.32 17 100 seed weight (g) 27.09** 45.49** 0.40 18 Fresh pod yield per plant (g) 8118.57** 87448.48** 185.63 * & ** significant at 5%and 1% level of significance respectively  Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2018)  7  (3): 2131-2137 2135 Table.2  Genetic parameters of variability for yield and yield attributing characters in twenty nine genotypes of field bean   S. No. Character Range Mean Variance Co efficient of variation Heritability h 2  (%) Genetic Advance GA as per cent of mean Min. Max. Phenotypic Genotypic PCV (%) GCV (%) 1 Days to first flowering 46.30 85.43 70.54 69.85 66.46 11.853 11.562 95.15 16.39 23.23 2 Days to 50 per cent flowering 51.50 92.67 73.66 75.29 71.46 11.779 11.472 94.86 16.95 23.02 3 Days to first pod set 53.29 98.00 80.55 79.88 75.42 11.097 10.783 94.43 17.39 21.59 4 No. of inflorescences per plant 11.90 28.40 21.22 18.15 17.75 20.068 19.848 97.82 8.58 40.44 5 Length of inflorescence (cm) 17.87 38.90 26.25 32.88 32.32 21.853 21.665 98.29 11.6 44.25 6 No. of pods per inflorescence 3.08 10.83 7.07 4.05 4.02 28.421 28.297 99.13 4.1 58.04 7 Length of the pod (cm) 4.69 12.98 5.92 3.68 3.64 32.336 32.159 98.9 3.91 65.89 8 Width of the pod (cm) 1.25 2.32 1.86 0.06 0.05 12.565 12.268 95.33 0.458 24.67 9 Days to first pod harvest 72.00 118.88 97.71 90.05 83.96 9.708 9.374 93.23 18.21 18.65 10 Days to last pod harvest 101.00 185.63 156.47 394.29 379.07 12.69 12.443 96.14 39.32 25.13 11 Weight of 10 green pods (g) 24.40 74.37 33.44 124.61 123.60 33.363 33.228 99.19 22.8 68.17 12 Number of pods per plant 27.72 243.67 133.71 3077.09 3058.42 41.484 41.359 99.4 113.57 84.94 13 No. of seeds per pod 3.42 5.26 3.89 0.17 0.16 10.582 10.268 94.16 0.80 20.53 14 Seed length (mm) 8.89 13.18 10.71 1.51 0.62 11.482 7.319 40.64 1.03 9.61 15 Seed width (mm) 6.17 9.61 7.39 0.74 0.17 11.636 5.631 23.42 0.415 5.61 16 Dry seed yield per plant (g) 41.45 209.48 121.72 1836.41 1730.09 35.208 34.174 94.2 83.17 68.33 17 100 seed weight (g) 16.05 37.93 24.8 15.43 15.03 15.849 15.641 97.4 7.89 31.8 18 Fresh pod yield per plant (g) 136.92 701.04 370.92 29273.25 29087.62 46.126 45.979 99.37 350.2 94.42
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