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24 Thomistic Theses

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24 Thomistic Thesis
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  We admonish professors to bear well in mind that they cannot set aside St. Thomas,especially in metaphysical questions, without grave disadvantage . --Pope St. Pius X (1903-1914), Pascendi Dominici Gregis, September , 190! Decree of Approval of some theses contained in the Doctrine of St. ThomasAquinas and proposed to the Teachers of hilosophy After our most Holy Father Pius X ordered in the Motu Proprio Doctoris Angelici , on June 29, 1914, that in all schools of philosophy the principles and main teachings of homas A!uinas e held, some teachers from #arious institutions proposed some theses for this $acred %ongregation to e&amine, 'hich theses they had een accustomed to teach and defend as eing those of the Holy eacher ($t)homas*, especially in metaphysics) his $acred %ongregation, ha#ing duly e&amined the aforementioned theses and ha#ing presented them to the Holy Father, y the mandate of His Holiness, declares that they clearly contain the principles and more important thoughts of the holy +octor ($t) homas*) These ! propositions are a concise guide of the whole philosophy and can be divided asfollows# nto#og$ (%&. 1 ' !)  osmo#og$ (%&.  ' 1*)  Ps$c&o#og$ (%&. 13 ' *1)  %&eodic$ (%&. ** ' *4 $  %&T%'%() * . Potenc$ and +ct diide being in suc& a a$ t&at &ateer is, is eit&er pure act, or o necessit$ it is composed o potenc$ and act as primar$ and intrinsic princip#es. ! . Since act is perection, it is not #imited e/cept t&roug& a potenc$ &ic& itse# is a capacit$ or  perection. ence in an$ order in &ic& an act is pure act, it i## on#$ e/ist, in t&at order, as a uniue and un#imited act. 2ut &eneer it is inite and manio#d, it &as entered into a true composition it& potenc$. +.  onseuent#$, t&e one God, uniue and simp#e, a#one subsists in abso#ute being. +## ot&er t&ings t&at participate in being &ae a nature &ereb$ t&eir being is restricted t&e$ are constituted o essence and being, as rea##$ distinct princip#es.  . + t&ing is ca##ed a being because o being (esse). God and creature are not ca##ed beings unioca##$, nor &o##$ euioca##$, but ana#ogica##$, b$ an ana#og$ bot& o attribution and o  proportiona#it$.  . n eer$ creature t&ere is a#so a rea# composition o t&e subsisting sub5ect and o added secondar$ orms, i.e. accidenta# orms. Suc& composition cannot be understood un#ess being is rea##$ receied in an essence distinct rom it. - . 2esides t&e abso#ute accidents t&ere is a#so t&e re#atie accident, re#ation. +#t&oug& b$ reason o its on c&aracter re#ation does not signi$ an$t&ing in&ering in anot&er, it neert&e#ess oten &as a cause in t&ings, and &ence a rea# entit$ distinct rom t&e sub5ect.   . + spiritua# creature is &o##$ simp#e in its essence. 6et t&ere is sti## a too#d composition in t&e spiritua# creature, name#$, t&at o t&e essence it& being, and t&at o t&e substance it& accidents. /.  oeer, t&e corporea# creature is composed o act and potenc$ een in its er$ essence. %&ese act and potenc$ in t&e order o essence are designated b$ t&e names orm and matter respectie#$. 0%S1%'%() 2.  7eit&er t&e matter nor t&e orm &ae being o t&emse#es, nor are t&e$ produced or corrupted o t&emse#es, nor are t&e$ inc#uded in an$ categor$ ot&erise t&an reductie#$, as substantia#  princip#es. *3 . +#t&oug& e/tension in uantitatie parts o##os upon a corporea# nature, neert&e#ess it is not t&e same or a bod$ to be a substance and or it to be uantiied. 8or o itse# substance is indiisib#e, not indeed as a point is indiisib#e, but as t&at &ic& a##s outside t&e order o dimensions is indiisib#e. 2ut uantit$, &ic& gies t&e substance e/tension, rea##$ diers rom t&e substance and is tru#$ an accident. **.  %&e princip#e o indiiduation, i.e., o numerica# distinction o one indiidua# rom anot&er it& t&e same speciic nature, is matter designated b$ uantit$. %&us in pure spirits t&ere cannot  be more t&an indiidua# in t&e same speciic nature. *!.  2$ irtue o a bod$s uantit$ itse#, t&e bod$ is circumscriptie#$ in a p#ace, and in one p#acea#one circumscriptie#$, no matter &at poer mig&t be broug&t to bear. *+ . 2odies are diided into to groups or some are #iing and ot&ers are deoid o #ie. n t&e case o t&e #iing t&ings, in order t&at t&ere be in t&e same sub5ect an essentia##$ moing part and an essentia##$ moed part, t&e substantia# orm, &ic& is designated b$ t&e name sou#, reuires anorganic disposition, i.e. &eterogeneous parts. S)04%'%() * . Sou#s in t&e egetatie and sensitie orders cannot subsist o t&emse#es, nor are t&e$  produced o t&emse#es. :at&er, t&e$ are no more t&an princip#es &ereb$ t&e #iing t&ing e/ists and #ies and since t&e$ are &o##$ dependent upon matter, t&e$ are incidenta##$ corrupted t&roug& t&e corruption o t&e composite. * . n t&e ot&er &and, t&e &uman sou# subsists o itse#. ;&en it can be inused into a suicient#$disposed sub5ect, it is created b$ God. 2$ its er$ nature, it is incorruptib#e and immorta#. *-.  %&is rationa# sou# is united to t&e bod$ in suc& a manner t&at it is t&e on#$ substantia# orm o t&e bod$. 2$ irtue o &is sou# a man is a man, an anima#, a #iing t&ing, a bod$, a substance and a being. %&ereore t&e sou# gies man eer$ essentia# degree o perection moreoer, it gies t&e  bod$ a s&are in t&e act o being &ereb$ it itse# e/ists.  *.  8rom t&e &uman sou# t&ere natura##$ issue ort& poers pertaining to to orders, t&e organic and t&e non-organic. %&e organic poers, among &ic& are t&e senses, &ae t&e composite as t&eir sub5ect. %&e non-organic poers &ae t&e sou# a#one as t&eir sub5ect. ence, t&e inte##ect is a poer intrinsica##$ independent o an$ bodi#$ organ. */ . nte##ectua#it$ necessari#$ o##os upon immateria#it$, and urt&ermore, in suc& manner t&at t&e at&er t&e distance rom matter, t&e &ig&er t&e degree o inte##ectua#it$. +n$ being is t&e adeuate ob5ect o understanding in genera#. 2ut in t&e present state o union o sou# and bod$, uiddities abstracted rom t&e materia# conditions o indiidua#it$ are t&e proper ob5ect o t&e &uman inte##ect. *2 . %&ereore, e receie <no#edge rom sensib#e t&ings. 2ut since sensib#e t&ings are not actua##$ inte##igib#e, in addition to t&e inte##ect, &ic& orma##$ understands, an actie poer must be ac<no#edged in t&e sou#, &ic& poer abstracts inte##igib#e #i<eness or species rom sense images in t&e imagination. !3 . %&roug& t&ese inte##igib#e #i<enesses or species e direct#$ <no uniersa#s, i.e. t&e natures o t&ings. ;e attain to singu#ars b$ our senses, and a#so b$ our inte##ect, &en it be&o#ds t&e sense images. 2ut e ascend to <no#edge o spiritua# t&ings b$ ana#og$. !* . %&e i## does not precede t&e inte##ect but o##os upon it. %&e i## necessari#$ desires t&at &ic& is presented to it as a good in eer$ respect satis$ing t&e appetite. 2ut it ree#$ c&ooses among t&e man$ goods t&at are presented to it as desirab#e according to a c&angeab#e 5udgment or ea#uation. onseuent#$, t&e c&oice o##os t&e ina# practica# 5udgment. 2ut t&e i## is t&e cause o it being t&e ina# one. T45%D60) !! . ;e do not perceie b$ an immediate intuition t&at God e/ists, nor do e proe it a priori. 2ute do proe it a posteriori, i.e., rom t&e t&ings t&at &ae been created, o##oing an argument rom t&e eects to t&e cause= name#$, rom t&ings &ic& are moed and cannot be t&e adeuate source o t&eir motion, to a irst unmoed moer rom t&e production o t&e t&ings in t&is or#d  b$ causes subordinated to one anot&er, to a irst uncaused cause rom corruptib#e t&ings &ic& eua##$ mig&t be or not be, to an abso#ute#$ necessar$ being rom t&ings &ic& more or #ess are, #ie, and understand, according to degrees o being, #iing and understanding, to t&at &ic& is ma/ima##$ understanding, ma/ima##$ #iing and ma/ima##$ a being ina##$, rom t&e order o a## t&ings, to a separated inte##ect &ic& &as ordered and organi>ed t&ings, and directs t&em to t&eir end. !+ . %&e metap&$sica# motion o t&e Diine ?ssence is correct#$ e/pressed b$ sa$ing t&at it is identiied it& t&e e/ercised actua#it$ o its on being, or t&at it is subsistent being itse#. +nd t&is is t&e reason or its ininite and un#imited perection. !.  2$ reason o t&e er$ purit$ o is being, God is distinguis&ed rom a## inite beings. ence it o##os, in t&e irst p#ace, t&at t&e or#d cou#d on#$ &ae come rom God b$ creation second#$, t&at not een b$ a$ o a mirac#e can an$ inite nature be gien creatie poer, &ic&  o itse# direct#$ attains t&e er$ being o an$ being and ina##$, t&at no created agent can in an$ a$ in#uence t&e being o an$ eect un#ess it &as itse# been moed b$ t&e irst ause. n 191!, pub#is&ing t&e anon @a, Pope 2enedict XA ordered t&e met&od, doctrines and princip#es o St %&omas to be o##oed (ode, can. 13BB, C *) and gae as reerence t&e decreeo t&e Sacred ongregation approing t&e *4 %&esis.  Acta Apostolicae Sedis, Vl (1914), 33B, is t&e source o t&e #ist o t&eses. t ea#uates t&em as a good statement o t&e princip#es and ma5or ies o St. %&omas p&i#osop&$. %&e same  Acta, VII (1916), 15758,  reers to t&em as sae, directie norms .  Sources1.St %&.  a . .!!, a.1  Eetap&. A, 1 and X, 1 and 9*.St %&.  a . .!, a.1-*  ont. Gent. , c.43   Sent. Dist.43, .*3.St %&.  a . .F0, a.*, ad 3  ont. Gent. , c.3,F*,F3,F4   Sent. Dist.19, .*, a.*  De ?nt. et ?ss. c.F  De Spir. reat. a.1  De Aerit. .*!, a.1, ad 4.St %&.  a . .13, a.F  ont. Gent. , c.3*,33,34  De Pot. .!, a.!F.St %&.  a . .3, a.B  ont. Gent. , c.*3  ont. Gent. , c.F*  De ?nt. et ?ss. c.FB.St %&.  a . .*, main#$ a.1!.St %&.  a . .F0 and   De Spirit. reat. a.1.St %&. De Spirit. reat. a.19.St %&.  a . .4F, a.4  De Pot. .3, a.F, ad 3 10.St %&. ont. Gent. A, c.BF   Sent. Dist. 3!, .*, a.1, ad 3   Sent. Dist. 30, .*, a.111.St %&. ont. Gent. , c.9*-93   a . .F0, a.4  De ?nt. et ?ss. c.*1*.St %&.  a . .!F  A Sent. Dist. 10, a.313.St %&.  a . .1, a.1-* and .!F, a.1  ont. Gent. , c.9!  De +nima eer$&ere14.St %&.  a . .!F, a.3 and .90, a.*  ont. Gent. , c.0 and *1F.St %&.  a . .!F, a.* and .90 and 11  ont. Gent. , c.3 and .  De Pot. .3, a.*  De +nim. a.141B.St %&.  a . .!B  ont. Gent. , c.FB, B-!1  De +nim. a.1  De Spirit. reat. a.31!.St %&.  a . .!!-!9  ont. Gent. , c.!*  De +nim. a.1* and .  De Spirit. reat. a.111.St %&.  a . .14, a.1 and .!4, a.! and .9, a.1-*  ont. Gent. , c.F9 and !*, and A, c.*19.St %&.  a . .!9, a.3-4 and .F, a.B-!  ont. Gent. , c.!B and .  De Spirit. reat. a.10*0.St %&.  a . .F-*1.St %&.  a . .*-3  ont. Gent. , c.!* and .  De Aerit. .**, a.F  De Ea#o .11**.St %&.  a . .*  ont. Gent. , c.1* and 31 and  c.10-11  De Aerit. .1 and 10  De Pot. .4 and !*3.St %&.  a . .4 , a.* and .13, a.11   Sent. Dist. , .1*4.St %&.  a . .44-4F and 10F  ont. Gent. , c.B-1F and  c.BB-B9 and A c.44  De Pot. main#$ .3, a.!
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