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  Coursework 1. There are eleven ways cultures become embedded in organizations. Explain carefully. Eleven Ways Cultures Become Embedded in Organizations Those who found a business, and the managers who follow them, essentially use a teaching process to embed the values, beliefs, expectations, behaviors, and business  philosophy that constitute the organization's culture. Among the mechanisms used are the following. 1. Formal Statements  The first way to embed preferred culture is through the use of formal statements of organizational philosophy, mission, vision, values, as well as materials used for recruiting, selecting, and socializing employees. Example: Wal-Mart founder Sam Walton stated that three basic values represented the core of the retailer's culture: (1) respect for the individual, (2) service to customers, and (3) striving for excellence. 2. Slogans & Sayings  The desirable corporate culture can be expressed in language, slogans, sayings, and acronyms. Example: Robert Mittelstaedt, Dean of the W.P. Carey School of Business at Arizona State University, promotes his goal of having a worldclass university through the slogan top-of-mind business school. This slogan  encourages instructors to engage in activities that promote quality education and research. 3. Stories, Legends, & Myths  A highly valued resource at The Associates is time. To reinforce the importance of not wasting time, many stories circulate about senior managers missing planes or being locked out of meetings because they were late. 4. Leader Reactions to Crises  How top managers respond to critical incidents and organizational crises sends a clear cultural message. Example: Canadian Dov Charney got into the clothing business as a college student, when he would buy thousands of T-shirts at Kmart, then import them via a U-Haul truck into Canada. Then he dropped out of college, borrowed $10,000 from his father, and moved to South Carolina to manufacture clothes just at a time when the rest of the garment industry found it was cheaper to make clothing overseas. Charney filed for bankruptcy but then moved his company to California, determined to make it work. I knew I could do it differently, and I knew I could turn it around, he said. Passion is the key to success. When you believe in what you're doing, that's the first thing. And you have to be resilient, because people are going to try to knock you down. Today his company, American Apparel, has over 6,700 employees. And it does something other garment makers have abandoned: it makes all its clothing in the United States. 5. Role Modelling , Training, & Coaching Triage Consulting Group, a health care  financial consulting firm in California, places a high value on superior performance at achieving measurable goals. New employees are immediately prepared for this culture with a 4-day orientation in Triage's culture and methods, followed by 15 training modules scheduled in 6-week intervals. After less than a year, the best performers are ready to  begin managing their own projects, furthering their career development. Performance evaluations take place four times a year, further reinforcing the drive for results. 6. Physical Design  Intel srcinally had all its people work in uniform cubicles, consistent with the value it placed on equality. (Top managers don't have reserved parking spaces either.) However, the cubicle arrangement conflicted with the value Intel places on innovation, so the company is experimenting with open-seating arrangements combined with small conference rooms. Not only are open-seating arrangements thought to encourage collaboration, they also can reduce noise because employees can see when their activities are annoying to people nearby. Intel hopes that this environment will  better support creative thinking. 7. Rewards , Titles, Promotions, & Bonuses At Triage Consulting Group, employees at the same level of their career earn the same pay, but employees are eligible for merit  bonuses, again reinforcing the culture of achievement. The awarding of merit bonuses is   partly based on co-workers' votes for who contributed most to the company's success, and the employees who received the most votes are recognized each year at the company's State of Triage meeting. 8. Organizational Goals & Performance Criteria  Many organizations establish organizational goals and criteria for recruiting, selecting, developing, promoting, dismissing, and retiring people, all of which reinforce the desired organizational culture. Example: PepsiCo sets challenging goals that reinforce a culture aimed at high  performance. 9. Measurable & Controllable Activities  There are a number of activities, processes, or outcomes that an organization's leaders can pay attention to, measure, and control that can foster a certain culture. Example: ExxonMobil's credo is efficiency in everything we do, so that managers make a concerted effort to measure, control, and reward cost efficiency. As a result, the company is famous for delivering consistent returns, regardless of whether the price of oil is up or down. 10. Organizational Structure  The hierarchical structure found in most traditional organizations is more likely to reinforce a culture oriented toward control and authority compared to the flatter organization that eliminates management layers in favor of giving employees more power. Example: The hierarchical structure of a railroad provides a
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