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  European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 !aper ISSN 2222-2#$9 %nline &ol.5' No.1$' 201$ 10 Work-Life Balance: A Study on Female Teachers of Private Education Institutions of Banladesh! Mo(ammad )a(im *ddin 1 +,dulla( Mo(ammad +(s(anul Mamun 2   Naamul o/ue  $  Mo(ammad S(a(a, *ddin   1.   e3turer' 4epartment of Business +dministration' International Islami3 *niersit6 7(ittagong' 20'  Nawa, Sira8udowla )oad' 7(aw,aar' 7(ittagong' Banglades( 2.   e3turer' 4epartment of Business +dministration' International Islami3 *niersit6 7(ittagong' n20'  Nawa, Sira8udowla )oad' 7(aw,aar' 7(ittagong' Banglades( $.   +ssistant !rofessor' 4epartment of Business +dministration' International Islami3 *niersit6 7(ittagong' 20' Nawa, Sira8udowla )oad' 7(aw,aar' 7(ittagong' Banglades( .   +ssistant !rofessor' 4epartment of Management Studies' *niersit6 of 7(ittagong' Banglades(.  E-mail of t(e 3orresponding aut(or: naam;iiu3<6a(oo.3om A stract +s so3iet6 goes a(ead in Banglades(' t(ere is an in3reasing e=pe3tation t(at women 3an not onl6 pla6 t(eir roles ,6 nurturing and raising families to ensure 3onfident and 3ompetent future generations for t(e ,etterment of so3iet6 ,ut 3an also generate in3ome ,6 8oining as paid worfor3e in t(e woring pla3e. >rowing 3ost of liing and 3(ange of mindset are t(e e6 reasons for w(i3( in3reasing num,er of edu3ated women are now woring outside t(eir (ouse. Een in re3ent time' t(e tenden36 is en(an3ing graduall6. +s a result' t(e traditional famil6 is  ,eing repla3ed ,6 t(e dual 3areer famil6. ?(us' so3io-demograp(i3 3(anges are o33urring similar to t(ose in deeloping and deeloped so3ieties. ?(is dual responsi,ilit6 is putting mounting pressure on women to a3(iee and maintain wor life ,alan3e. In t(is arti3le' a sure6 is 3ondu3ted on @2 edu3ation institutions of Banglades( taing sample of $20 tea3(ers to now t(e real status of wor-life ,alan3e institutions. ?(e stud6 finds t(at t(e wor-life ,alan3e situation is moderate w(i3( 3an ,e improed ,6 ensuring fle=i,le woring (ours roistered da6s off and famil6 friendl6 starting and finis(ing times ' transport fa3ilit6' residential fa3ilit6' 3(ild 3are 3enter' fle=i,le wor arrangementsA 8o, s(aring ' redu3ed woring (ours  worload and 3(ild s3(ooling for t(e female tea3(ers. #ey$ords: Cor load' Jo, s(aring' 7(ild 3are' Dle=i,le woring (our' Damil6 support. %!& Introduction In t(e past two de3ades' wor-life ,alan3e as well as t(e need for good wor-life ,alan3eF (as featured  prominentl6 in 3ountless a3ademi3' pra3titioner and poli36 maer de,ates Dleetwood' 200GH Ma3Innes' 200# . Corlife ,alan3e is t(e degree to w(i3( an indiidual is a,le to simultaneousl6 ,alan3e t(e temporal' emotional' and ,e(aioral demands of ,ot( paid wor and famil6 responsi,ilities ill et al.' 2001' p. 9 . It is a situation in w(i3( emplo6ees are a,le to gie rig(t amount of time and efforts to t(eir wor as well as t(eir personal life outside wor Cor-life ,alan3e' 2009. +nna' B.' 2010 . Emplo6ers for Cor-ife Balan3e EfCB ' a lo,,6 group for oluntar6 3(anges in woring arrangements' sa6s wor-life ,alan3e is a,out people (aing a measure of 3ontrol oer w(en' w(ere and (ow t(e6 wor' leading t(em to ,e a,le to en8o6 an optimal /ualit6 of life. Cor-life ,alan3e is a3(ieed w(en an indiidualKs rig(t to a fulfilled life inside and outside paid wor is a33epted and respe3ted as t(e norm' to t(e mutual ,enefit of t(e indiidual' ,usiness and so3iet6K. Cor-life  ,alan3e refers to t(e fle=i,le woring arrangements t(at allow ,ot( parents and non-parents to aail of woring arrangements t(at proide a ,alan3e ,etween wor responsi,ilities and personal responsi,ilities. ?(e term wor-life ,alan3eK is preferred due to t(e fa3t t(at it en3ompasses t(e e=perien3es and needs of parents and non-parents alie' and is a more progressie t(eoreti3al framewor in w(i3( to t(in a,out new wa6s of liing and woring t(at are satisfa3tor6 to all. +s wor (as eoled to ,e more nowledge-,ased' fluid' and intelle3tual' it (as ,e3ome (arder to es3ape o3wood' 200$ . Emplo6ees 3an no longer easil6 segregate t(eir wor from t(e rest of t(eir lies ,e3ause wor (as t(e 3apa3it6 to tae oer peopleKs t(oug(ts !atterson' 2001 . In addition to t(is information 3ommuni3ation te3(nologies (ae remoed t(e temporal and spatial ,oundaries of wor' allowing people to wor an6time from an6w(ere Ja3o,s  Cinslow' 200 . ?(is intensifi3ation of wor maes finding a desira,le ,alan3e ,etween wor and life outside wor mu3( more diffi3ult. Indeed' from t(e er6 dawn to t(e (uman 3iiliation' women (ae ,een pla6ing er6 important role mostl6 in  European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 !aper ISSN 2222-2#$9 %nline &ol.5' No.1$' 201$ 11 t(e famil6 not onl6 ,6 rearing offspring and doing (ouse(old affairs ,ut also ,6 generating in3ome t(roug( (andi3rafts and man6 ot(er wa6s. ?(e role of women is su3( an important t(at ignoring t(eir roles no famil6 and so3iet6 3an ,e progressed and prospered in a ,alan3ed and meaningful wa6. 7onsidering t(eir roles t(e6 are 3alled (alf of ,od6. But' wit( t(e passage of time t(e nature and t6pes of roles of women are 3(anging in different so3iet6 and 3ulture. *ndou,tedl6 a e6 e3onomi3 deelopment in t(e last 50 6ears (as ,een t(e su,stantial and well-do3umented in3rease in womenKs la,or for3e parti3ipation Bl6ton and 4astmal3(ian' 200@H M37all' 2005' Strau,' 200G and mot(ers are now t(e primar6 or 3o-,readwinners in man6 families of t(e world. ?(e E3onomist   3ommented on t(is trend 3laiming' ComenKs e3onomi3 empowerment is argua,l6 t(e ,iggest so3ial 3(ange of our timesF +nna' B.' 2010 . E3onomi3 pressures oer t(e last de3ade (ae signifi3antl6 in3reased t(e need for dual-earner families to t(e point t(at t(e ma8orit6 of families now re/uire two  ,readwinners to meet rises in t(e 3ost of liing Dord et al.' 200GH C(ite and )ogers' 2000 . Now' t(e Comen are entering into t(e la,or for3e in large num,ers' w(ere ma8orit6 of t(em 3ome from middle-3lass wit( 3(ildren into t(e paid wor for3e' (as eit(er dire3tl6 or indire3tl6 affe3ted irtuall6 eer6one in so3iet6 as peopleKs mot(ers' wies' sisters' daug(ters' and friends stepped out of t(e (ome into paid emplo6ment !err6-Jenins' et al.' 2000 . ?(us' t(e growing num,er of women in t(e la,or for3e intensifies t(e realiation t(at more indiiduals (ae to simultaneousl6 manage two domains of life: famil6 and wor >rant-&allone  Ens(er' 2001H Larimi' 200@ . Indeed' a3ross nations and o33upations' it is still mainl6 women w(o are responsi,le for 3(ild and elderl6 3are' (ouse(old 3(ores and ot(er famil6-related issues and w(o' t6pi3all6 regardless of (ours wored in paid emplo6ment' wor a se3ond s(iftF at (ome +s(er' 2011H Broad,ridge' 200#H Burnett et al.' 2011H o3(s3(ild' 200$ . +s a result' 3onfli3t and strain often arise for indiiduals w(o parti3ipate in ,ot( of t(ese areas' ,e3ause role e=pe3tations are fre/uentl6 in3ompati,le >rant-&allone  Ens(er' 2001H !osig and Li3ul' 200' Simon' Lmmerling'  assel(orn' 200 . ?(e 3onfli3t is usuall6 ,idire3tional: wor 3an interfere wit( t(e famil6' and t(e famil6 3an interfere wit( wor Simon et al.' 200 . Cor interferen3e wit( famil6 is more of an issue t(an famil6 interferen3e wit( wor >r6wa3' Drone' Brewer'  Loner' 200@H Simon et al.' 200 . +lt(oug( men and women ,ot( e=perien3e inter-role 3onfli3ts' it is often more diffi3ult for women to ,alan3e t(eir wor and (ome roles Caler' Cang and )edmond' 200# . +33ording to 4o(ert6 200 ' t(is diffi3ult6 t(en ,e3omes t(e  primar6 sour3e of womenKs disadantage in t(e 3orporate world and e=plains t(eir 3on3entration in low paid'  part-time emplo6ment and t(eir a,sen3e at t(e most senior leels of management in ,usinessOKK p. $$ . ?(us' t(e 3(allenge of wor-life ,alan3e is a realit6 for eer6 woring woman' and it is an issue t(at is widel6 dis3ussed in organiations and goernments toda6. Comen feel entitled to 3laim t(is ,alan3e' een if it re/uires formal interention from institutions and goernments. Pet it was not er6 long ago t(at worAlife ,alan3e was a w(ispered ta,oo or seen as an indiidualKs personal pro,lem to ,e resoled in priate )i3e' 2000' +nna' B.' 2010 . Dor a long time' most women did not ,eliee t(at t(e6 desered a (ealt(6 ,alan3e ,etween t(eir wor and t(eir lies outside of wor' let alone e=pe3t and re3eie formal poli3ies supporting t(is ,alan3e. Een at present' in man6 3ases t(e term wor-life ,alan3eF is not understood as well as re3ognied offi3iall6 and so3iall6. In t(is regard' >reen(aus' 7ollins' and S(aw 200$ sa6' ,eing ,alan3ed means approa3(ing ea3( role ,ot( in wor and famil6 wit( an appro=imatel6 e/ual leel of attention' time' inolement' and 3ommitment. In t(e past' t(e issue of worAlife ,alan3e was dismissed ,6 organiations as a triial pro,lem not wort(6 of 3on3ern or a3tion. %rganiations t(roug(out (istor6 (ae ,een ,uilt ,6 men and for men  Me6erson  Lol,' 2000 ' and as menKs roles in t(e worpla3e (ae 3(anged little sin3e t(e Industrial )eolution' t(e 3(allenges women initiall6 3onfronted w(en entering t(ese male-dominated worpla3es garnered little attention. Now' t(ere is a 3riti3al mass of women in t(e worfor3e S(rier' 2009. +nna' B.' 2010 ' organiations and goernments (ae ,een for3ed to re3ognie womenKs 3on3erns a,out worAlife ,alan3e. In Banglades(i so3iet6' an indiidualKs identit6 is largel6 tied to t(e identit6 of t(e e=tended famil6. ?(e ma8orit6 of Banglades(i women are still (ig(l6 responsi,le for (ouseeeping' 3(ild3are' and all ot(er aspe3ts of running a (ome. 4espite t(e traditional stru3ture of famil6 roles in Banglades(' wit( men as t(e onl6 ,readwinners' a num,er of women now parti3ipate in t(e worpla3e. >rowing 3ost of liing and 3(ange of mindset are t(e e6 reasons for w(i3( in3reasing num,er of edu3ated women are now woring outside t(eir (ouse. Een in re3ent time' t(e tenden36 is in3reasing graduall6. +s a result' t(e traditional famil6 is ,eing repla3ed ,6 t(e dual3areer famil6' t(us so3io-demograp(i3 3(anges are similar to t(ose in deeloped and deeloping so3ieties. ie all ot(er 3ountries of t(e world ingard et al.' 200G ' wor-life ,alan3e of t(e female emplo6ees (as  ,e3ome an issue in Banglades(. So' w(at is t(e status of wor-life ,alan3e of female tea3(ers woring in t(e  priate edu3ation institutions from t(e stand point of different fa3tors in respe3t of famil6 influen3e t(e wor life ,alan3e as well as organiations influen3e t(e wor life ,alan3e of female tea3(ers in Banglades(Q. C(at are t(e wa6s to ensure CB of female tea3(ers of edu3ational institutionsQ  European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 !aper ISSN 2222-2#$9 %nline &ol.5' No.1$' 201$ 12 '!& (ethodoloy ?o now t(e real status of wor-life ,alan3e' a sure6 is 3ondu3ted wit( t(e (elp of a stru3tured /uestionnaire on $20 female tea3(ers of @2 priate edu3ation institutions of Banglades(. ?(e sample as s(own ,elow was sele3ted t(roug( t(e stratified disproportionate random sampling met(od. ?6pe of Edu3ation ?6pe of Management  No. of ?ea3(ers  No of Demale ?ea3(ers Sample Institution Sample )espondents !rimar6 Edu3ation !u,li3 212@5$ 12150 Private 1#2@2# )&*++ 20 %&, S3(ool Edu3ation !u,li3 G5@2 2#@9 Private 21599$ .%*' 15 +& 7ollege Edu3ation !u,li3 10$$ 2@10 Private #51#G %+)'% 12 /& *niersit6 !u,li3 9@$ 1G# Private @20 %++. # ,& %t(ers !u,li3 @$5# 1 Private 12995$ %,), G ', Total /' *'& Source:  (ttp:AAwww.,an,eis.go.,dA ?(e resear3(ers (ae fo3used on t(e tea3(ers ,e3ause of t(e fa3t t(at tea3(er is t(e ,a3,one of edu3ation and edu3ation is t(e ,a3,one of a nation. So' for t(e deelopment of nation t(e wor-life ,alan3e s(ould ,e improed. ?(e opinions of t(e sample respondents were re3orded on 5 points iert-t6pe summated rating s3ales. ?(e se3ondar6 data and information were o,tained t(roug( li,rar6 resear3(es and sure6 of offi3e do3uments from te=t ,oos and related aaila,le pu,lis(ed arti3les on wor-life ,alan3e. ?(e data t(us 3olle3ted were ta,ulated first manuall6 after w(en t(e6 were anal6ed ,6 emplo6ing statisti3al te3(ni/ues lie per3entage. *!& 0eed for Ensurin Work-life Balance of Female Em1loyee %rganiations toda6 fa3e (eig(tened 3ompetition on a worldwide ,asis' emplo6ees are e=perien3ing in3reasing  performan3e pressures' and (ours spent at t(e worpla3e ma6 ,e in3reasing S3(or' 1991 . ig( performan3e organiations (ae raised t(eir e=pe3tations regarding time' energ6 and wor 3ommitment. ?(ese e=pe3tations ma6 ,e parti3ularl6 diffi3ult for women to meet' sin3e women still perform t(e ,ul of (ouse(old tass o3(s3(ild' 19#9' 199G . ?(e ina,ilit6 to ,alan3e wor and life (as seere impli3ations ,e3ause it affe3ts eer6 aspe3t of womenKs lies. ?(e stress 3reated from ,eing pulled in multiple dire3tions (as negatie 3onse/uen3es for  ps63(ologi3al and p(6si3al well-,eing Linman  Jones' 200 . C(en women are spread too t(in attempting to satisf6 all of t(e 3ompeting demands on t(eir time' t(e6 are not a,le to 3omplete an6 tas to t(e ,est of t(eir a,ilit6 3ausing all t(eir roles to suffer. !rodu3tiit6 at wor is affe3ted and t(e /ualit6 of womenKs relations(ips wit( friends and famil6 are (armed. ?(is ps63(ologi3al stress stemming from t(eir ina,ilit6 to gie 100 per3ent at wor and at (ome 3an also produ3e pro,lems for womenKs p(6si3al (ealt(. !oor nutrition' la3 of e=er3ise' and (ig( leels of stress t(at result from poor worAlife ,alan3e 3an 3ause p(6si3al s6mptoms su3( as fatigue' (eada3(es' insomnia' and ,a3 pains' and sometimes lead to more serious illnesses in3luding (eart 3onditions t(at result in long-term 3onse/uen3es for women and t(eir families Linman  Jones' 200 . Better wor life ,alan3e 3reates (ig( leels of emplo6ee satisfa3tion. It proides a solid return for t(e organiation as well as t(e worfor3e. Cor-life ,alan3e programs 3an also (elp ,6 reinfor3ing re3ruitment' raising emplo6ee retention' de3reasing a,senteeism' limiting late 3omers' powering up produ3tiit6' !romoting parti3ipation in training' 3ontending wit( 3ompetition and engaging t(e emerging la,or maret Better Balan3e' Better Business.' 200   CorAlife ,alan3e not onl6 affe3ts woring women and t(eir friends and families' ,ut it is also releant to organiations from a ,usiness standpoint. Comen now mae up (alf t(e worfor3e' and if organiations want to 3ompete in t(e glo,alied maretpla3e' t(e6 (ae to ma=imie t(eir use of t(e aaila,le talent pool. CorAlife im,alan3e taes a toll on womenKs 8o, satisfa3tion and 3ommitment to t(e organiation Linman' 2001 . If women do not re3eie ade/uate support from emplo6ers in managing t(eir wor and (ome demands' t(e6 are more liel6 to opt for part-time wor or leae paid emplo6ment entirel6. ?(is (as signifi3ant ,usiness 3osts asso3iated wit( a,senteeism and turnoer' and ultimatel6 limits womenKs full parti3ipation in t(e la,or for3e  preenting organiations from (iring t(e ,est person for ea3( 8o, ?odd' 200 . !oor worAlife ,alan3e (as negatie impli3ations for organiations in t(e glo,al e3onom6' as well as for indiidual women and t(eir families. Durt(ermore' wor life ,alan3e (as a great influen3e oer t(e organiation. Some time it is 3ostl6 for t(e  European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 !aper ISSN 2222-2#$9 %nline &ol.5' No.1$' 201$ 1$ organiation. ?(e 3ostl6 3onse/uen3es of wor life im,alan3e of emplo6ee towards organiation arises ,6 in3reased a,senteeism' in3reased emplo6ee turnoer' redu3ed produ3tiit6' in3reased disa,ilit6 3osts' in3reased (ealt( 3osts' redu3ed 8o, satisfa3tion' in3reased managerial stress' and impaired famil6Aso3ial relations(ips Better Balan3e' Better Business.' 200 . !& Analysis and Inter1retations of 21inion Survey on Work-Life Balance of Female Teachers of Private Education Institutions of Banladesh ?o now real pi3ture of wor-life ,alan3e of female tea3(ers in Banglades( a sure6 (as ,een 3ondu3ted. ?(e anal6sis and interpretations of t(e opinion sure6 (as ,een appended ,elow: Ta le %: Work Life Balance   Statement Strongl6 disagree 1 4isagree 2 Somew(at agree $ +gree  Strongl6 agree 5 I want to leae m6 8o, ,e3ause of wor-life  ,alan3e 3ondition 5R 1 $2R 10$ 1$R 2 @R 19 R 12 M6 8o, and famil6 interfere wit( one anot(er $1R 99 22R G1 2@R 1#$ 10R $2 11R $5 I 3an manage t(e demands of wor and  personal life 9R 2# 1$R 2 $9R 125 25R #0 1R 5 Ce see in a,oe ta,le ta,le 1 t(at as regards t(e statement' I want to leae m6 8o, ,e3ause of wor-life  ,alan3e 3onditionF' 5R and $2R respondents respe3tiel6 s(owed strong disagreementK' and disagreementK t(at is' GGR 5R$2R respondents do not want to leae t(eir 8o,s ,e3ause of wor-life ,alan3e situation. C(ereas' 1$R' @R' and R respondents s(owed respe3tiel6 some w(at agreementK' agreementK and strongl6 agreementK' it means' 2$R respondents want to leae t(eir 8o,s ,e3ause of wor-life ,alan3e 3ondition. +s regards t(e statement' M6 8o, and famil6 interfere wit( one anot(erF' $1R and 22R respondents respe3tiel6 s(owed strong disagreementK' and disagreementK' t(at is' 5$R respondents replied t(at t(eir wor-life ,alan3e situation is good. C(ereas' 2@R' 10R' and 11R respondents s(owed respe3tiel6 some w(at agreementK' agreementK and strongl6 agreementK' it means' GR respondents replied t(at t(eir wor-life  ,alan3e 3ondition is not good. +s regards t(e statement' I 3an manage t(e demands of wor and personal lifeF' 9R and 1$R respondents respe3tiel6 s(owed strong disagreementK' and disagreementK' t(at is' 22R respondents replied t(at t(e6 are una,le to manage t(eir wor-life ,alan3e situation. C(ereas' $9R' 25R' and 1R respondents s(owed respe3tiel6 some w(at agreementK' agreementK and strongl6 agreementK' it means' G#R respondents replied t(at t(e6 are a,le to manage t(eir wor-life ,alan3e situation. Ta le ': The effect of family on $ork Statement  Strongl6 disagree 1 4isagree 2 Some w(at agree $ +gree  Strongl6 agree 5 M6 personal or famil6 life (as ept me distur,ed from doing a 8o, as good as I 3ould do. 1GR 5 $9R 125 22R G0 10R $2 12R $9 M6 spouse A parents A famil6 isAare 3ooperatie to maintain a wor life ,alan3e. #R 2@ 1#R 5# 21R @G @R 1G GR 22 Ce see in a,oe ta,le ta,le 2 t(at as regards t(e statement' M6 personal or famil6 life (as ept me distur,ed from doing a 8o, as good as I 3ould do.F' 1GR and $9R respondents respe3tiel6 s(owed strong disagreementK' and disagreementK t(at is' 5@R 1GR$9R respondents replied t(at t(eir personal or familial life did not distur, t(em in doing t(eir 8o,s perfe3tl6. C(ereas' 22R' 10R' and 12R respondents s(owed respe3tiel6 some w(at agreementK' agreementK and strongl6 agreementK' it means' R respondents replied t(at t(eir personal or familial life distur,ed t(em in doing t(eir 8o,s perfe3tl6 +s regards t(e statement' M6 spouse A parents A famil6 isAare 3ooperatie to maintain a wor life ,alan3e.F' #R and 1#R respondents respe3tiel6 s(owed strong disagreementK' and disagreementK t(at is' 2@R #R1#R respondents replied t(at t(eir spouse A parents A famil6 is not 3ooperatie. C(ereas' 21R' @R' and GR respondents s(owed respe3tiel6 some w(at agreementK' agreementK and strongl6 agreementK' it means' @R

NT2640_57_Syllabus

Jul 23, 2017

Grignard Synthesis

Jul 23, 2017
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