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  1 World Systems Theory ãReview chapter 1 and pp62-74 in Taylor and FlintãSkim chapter 3: Geography of ImperialismsãImmanuel Wallerstein (1930-) –Sociologist –Marxian approach –looking for a single theory that would explain and predict world events Three types of systems 1.Mini-systemsãReciprocal-lineage mode of production2.“World” EmpiresãRedistributive tributary mode of production3.The World EconomyãCapitalist mode of production 1) A Single Capitalist World Economy Capitalist mode of Production: Workers do not consume all they  produce. Instead, production is for exchange in a market, which determines the price of a commodity through supply and demand. 2) A System of Multiple States a) states protect those without power  b) states protect those with power c) political fragmentation i) prevents price fixingii) prevents challenges to the system Three Basic Elements of the World System  2 3) A 3-tier hierarchy based on 2 processes Peripheral processes:  primary economic activities, low wages, low value addedCore processes:Secondary, tertiary, quaternary processes, high wages, high value addedThree tiers: Core, Periphery and Semi-Periphery ! Division of economic activities across the globe (the geography of international capitalism) Three Basic Elements of the World SystemA ‘contradiction’ in capitalism? ãOwners dilemma: –You want wages as low as possible to keep profits as high as possible –You need consumers who can afford to purchase your  products.Solutions:1.Government subsidizes labor costs2.Geographic expansion International Class Matrix Geographic distribution of class and trade relationshipsFour relationships:ãCore owner and peripheral owner ãPeripheral owner and peripheral worker ãCore owner and core worker ãCore worker and peripheral worker Seeks to explain political relations between core and periphery.  3 WorkersOwners       C    o    r    e      P    e    r      i    p      h    e    r    y Social Imperialism      C    o     l     l    a     b    o    r    a    t     i    o    n     D     i    v     i    s     i    o    n  Repression Questions on class matrix ãWill workers in the core and periphery always be divided?ãDo the terms “owner” and “worker” make sense?ãThe problem with the term “elites”ãIf “collaboration” is necessary for the system to run, why does the core push for democracy and free markets in the  periphery?Scale of Reality--Global ScaleScale of Ideology--State ScaleScale of Experience--Local ScaleThe state acts as a filter between the local and the global.ãThe state can expose or protect localities to and from the global market. Political economy and geographic scales  4 Global cycles Logistic waves (1050-1750)I.A: c. 1050 -------c. 1250B: c. 1250 -------c. 1450II. A: c. 1450--------c. 1600B: c. 1600--------c. 1750Kondratieff waves (1750-present) 50-60 year cycles –A-phase: innovation and growth –B-phase: stagnation or depression INNOVATIONI. A. 1780/90---------1810/17Steam power B. 1814/17---------1844/51II.A. 1844/51---------1871/75Railways/steelB. 1870/75---------1890/96III.A. 1890/96---------1914/20Gas/electric power/chemB. 1914/20----------1940/45IV.A. 1940/45---------1967/73Petrochemicals/electronicsB. 1967/73---------1989/92?V. A. 1989/92?---------? IT/biotech? Kondratieff cyclesKondratieff B-Phase ãFour processes: –Production costs reduced by relocation –Mechanization –Rise in economic disparities –Flux periodãAnti-systemic movements increase –Oppression increases –Expectations not met –Faltering power of ruling class
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