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  VEHICLE OF FUTURE(   HYBRID VEHICLE) CONTENTS SR. NO.TITLEPAGE NO. 1.INTRODUCTION22.NEED OF HYBRID VEHICLE23.WHAT MAKES IT A “HYBRID”?34.VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY35.COMONENTS5!.THE THERMAL MANAGEMENT #.THE EFFICIENT FEATURES$ .MAINTENANCE11$.EEING IN FUTURE11BIBLIOGRAHY12 VEHICLE OF FUTURE (HYBRID VEHICLES)1) INTRODUCTION Today the world is facing number of problems. The population is growing at high rate. The world is coming closer at fast rate. The conventional energy sources are limited, they produce emission which is harmful to the atmosphere and mankind. They contribute to the greenhouse effect.The auto industry now has the technology that might answer all of these needs. ‘Bi-fuel vehicles, Flex fuel vehicles, martica, ! uada are few to say. #ybrid vehicle is one of them, which uses electric power which will definitely reduce the emission problem. $anufacturers are selling their versions in the %nited tates. &ou're probably aware of these cars because they've been in the news a lot. (n fact, most automobile manufacturers have announced plans to manufacture their own versions -- you can even expect some hybrid %)s to hit the streets this year. #ow does a hybrid automobile work* +hat goes on under the hood to give you  or  more miles per gallon than the standard automobile* !nd 1  does it pollute less /ust because it gets better gas mileage* (n this article, we'llhelp you understand how this ama0ing technology works. +e'll show you whatis going on in the ‘Toyota and #onda hybrids1, and even give you some adviceabout how to drive one for maximum efficiency2 2) NEED OF HYBRID VEHICLE To be useful to you or me, a car must meet certain minimum re uirements. The car should be able to3 ã 4rive at least  miles 567 km8 between re-fueling ã Be refueled uickly and easily ã 9eep up with the other traffic on the road. ! gasoline car meets these re uirements but produces a relatively large amount of pollution and generally gets poor gas mileage. !n electric car,on the other hand, produces almost no pollution, but it can only go : to ; miles 57 to ;<; km8 between charges. !nd the problem has been that it is very slow and inconvenient to recharge. ! driver's desire for uick accelerationcauses our cars to be much less efficient than they could be. ! completely feasible as well as optimum solution to these problems is the ‘#ybrid )ehicles1.The hybrid is a compromise. (t attempts to significantly increase the mileage and reduce the emissions of a gas-powered car while overcoming theshortcomings of an electric car. 3)WHAT MAKES IT A HYBRID ?  !ny vehicle is a hybrid when it combines two or more sources of power.(n fact, many people have probably owned a hybrid vehicle at some point. For example, a mo-ped 5a motori0ed pedal bike8 is a type of hybrid because it combines the power of a gasoline engine with the pedal power of its rider. #ybrid vehicles are all around us. $ost of the locomotives we see pulling trains are diesel-electric hybrids. =ities like eattle have diesel-electric buses -- these can draw electric power from overhead wires or run on diesel 2  when they are away from the wires. >iant mining trucks are often diesel-electric hybrids. ubmarines are also hybrid vehicles -- some are nuclear-electric and some are diesel-electric. !ny vehicle that combines two or more sources of power that can directly or indirectly provide propulsion power is a hybrid. ) VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY #ybrid electric vehicles combine the best features of internal combustion engines and electric motors. (n the hybrid vehicles both the engine and the electric motor are connected to the wheels by the same transmission. o the engine can be smaller. . (ntelligent power electronics decide when to use the motor and engine and when to store electricity in advanced batteries for future use.The electric motor is used primarily for low speed cruising or to provide extra power for acceleration or hill climbing. +hen braking or coasting to a stop, thehybrid uses its electric motor as a generator to produce electricity, which is then stored in its battery pack.%nlike all-electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles do not need to be plugged into an external source of electricity. >asoline stored in a conventional fuel tank provides all the energy the hybrid vehicle needs.Basically, two types of hybrid systems are employed .1.1) S!#!$ $%$&!' 3-(n this type the engine driven generator is employed to recharge the batteries, while the electric motor drives the car. There is only one path for themechanical power from the battery and?or engine to get to the wheels.T@ =!A+#C+#C A*+&*,!$ 3- ;8 The engine never idles, which reduces vehicle emissions.8 The engine drives a generator to run at optimum performance. 3   GASOLINEENGINEGENERATORBATTERIESELECTRICMOTOR   8 The design allows for a variety of options when mounting the engine and vehicle components.68 ome series hybrids do not need a transmission. D#$**+&*,!$  3- ;8 eries #)s re uire larger, and therefore, heavier battery packs than parallel vehicles.8 The engine works hard to maintain the battery charge because the system is not operating parallel.8 This system involves significant mechanical-electrical-mechanical conversion losses.Thus series system is very insufficient .1.2) P**--!- $%$&!' 3 - (n this type, the engine is directly connected to the wheels and also it has an electric motor that drives the wheels i. e. it has multiple paths for the flow of power between the engine, the battery and the wheels. T@ =!A +#C A*+&*,!$ ;8 The vehicle has more power because both engine andthe motor supply power simultaneously 8 $ost parallel vehicles do not need a separate generator because the motor regenerates the batteries.8 Because the power is directly coupled to the road, it can be more efficient. 4   GASOLINEENGINEELECTRICMOTOR BATTERIES
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