MODULE-III Social Chang4 Socialization and Social Control m FACTORS OF SOCIAL CHANGE You are already familiar with the concept of social change and the theories associated with it . Change takes place in all human societies and at all times. Sometimes, it is sudden as when a revolution OCC\ll S to replace the old order, At other times, it is gradual and hardly perceptible. If change does not occur on its own, it may be inducedbycemnnfactors.Therefore, it is important for a sociologist to stud
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  Notes MODULE-III Social Chang4 Socialization and Social Control SOCIOLOGY Social change is a complex and multi-faceted phenomenon. Since change in one sphere affects other spheres of ocial life, it is desirable to take an integrated view of the processes of ocial change. This will facilitate a clear understanding of the role of various factors which have a collective impact on this process. We can then appreciate and uilderstand the various changes taking place and be able to identify the correlation and causative effects of the various factors underlying hese changes. 17.J FACTORS OF SOCIAL CllANGE After reading this lesson, you will be able to: ã explain the mechanism of social change; ã identify the underlying causes of social change; and ã appreciate the roles of various factors which bring about change in society. You are already familiar with the concept of social change and the theories associated with it . Change takes place in all human societies and at all times. Sometimes, it is sudden as when a revolution OCC\ll S to replace the old order, At other times, it is gradual and hardly perceptible. If change does not occur on its own, it may be nduced bycemnnfactors. Therefore, it is mportant for a sociologist to study these factors which either give impetus to or resist change. In his lesson, we are going to read about the factors of change. F CTORS OF SOCI L CH NGE m  SOCIOLOGY By demo g raphic fact o rs , we mean the factors that d e termine the numbers , compositi o n, selection and th e hereditary quality of ucce ss i ve gene ra ti o ns. Changes in ~pulation , both in numbe r s and co~iion, ha~a~ ~ ~ effect on soci e ty. When population increases o r~ Q aadcQtiij)ositicm of a population changes. Change in the siz e of a population may bring a bout a change in the economic life of the people , whi c h m ay further bring about a chang e in various oth er aspects of h uman l i fe like social , cultural and political . The swift and st ead y decline ofboth birth rate and. d ea th rat e has led to tremendous so ci al transform ation . With improv ed sanitary c ~ nd i tions nd medical facilities , India has e x perienced a dramatic ~ in t..,,pb~ of~~ ; > Th ~ phenomenal in c rea s e in population h a s, in tutn , giVell ri~'tO   fy ifsoc t fil proble ms like unemploymen t, hild l a bour , growth o f lums , increased crim e rate and social te nsions. Dec l ine in death rate has led to increased population growth compared t o a c e ntury ago . Add i tionall y, avail a bility of better medi c al facilitie s has e nabled them to be acti v e till old a ge . This has brought about a perceptible ( vi s ibl e} change ~ n ~ ocial attitud e s and beli e fs . 17.2 DE l VIOGRAPHIC FACTOR S OF S OCIAL CHANGE e)economic f) education d) political ) demographic b) technology c)cultural External factors of change emphasise on the impact of such forces in a society ã .. .  ã . . . whi c h are beyond human control like natural disasters an d une x pec ted deve lop men ts in technology. Now we take up some factors that affect social change . The fac t ors that we will be studying in this lesson are - a) endog e nous (i.e. internal to the so ciety concerned) ; and b) e xogeno us. Internal facto rs could refer to the infiastructural fa cilitie s, heir distribution among people and pe o ple ' s acces s to them . Sotiatchange occ urs due t o intera ctio n and conflict caused by differential values 6fthi:;old and th e young , the literat e and the ill i terate, th e urban and the rural folk . So c i a l chan g e occurs due to v ariou s fa ctors. S om e of he se f actors ar e : , ~~ / · F ac t o r s of S ocia l C h a n ge ) ' ·~· r ; ~ , lid Notes MODULE-ill Social Change Socialization and Social Control  MODULE-III Social Chang4 Socialization and Social Control Technological progress has often triggered a long lasting change in society. Development and change in human societies have been linked with development and change in echnology. Sociologists say Technology changes society by changing our environment to which we, in um, adapt. This change is usually in he material environment and the \djustments we make to these changes often modifies customs and social nmtutions. In earlier times, technology was simple and societies were simple too. Traditional 17.3 TECHNOLOGY AS A FACTOR OF SOCIAL CIL\NGE 1. Answer in TRUE or FALSE. a. With improved medical facilities and sanitary conditions, population increases. b. . Decline in birth rate would also lower the standard of living. In he Indian context, we notice that an increase in population has resulted in an increase in unemployment, in poverty, n urbanisation. in he number of lums, and an increase in he burden on infrastructural facilities. These, in um, have resulted in he absence of dequate facilities, rise in nuclear families and, over time, have altered social relationships in a perceptible manner. · .Jrt '' ._ 'it ·r1;d ('hangr ~1 :~ p ã When the growth of opulation threatens the standard ofliving, it inspires a change in attitude. People are more open and accept the use of ontraceptives, one child family norm and in ome cases couples decide to adopt a child. Had we witnessed a corresponding decline in the birth rate, it would have meant a _....,....,,..--,..--_ higher standard of living. the emancipation of women from child bearing drudgery, Notes better care for the young and perhaps a healthier society. Of course, then, fewer young people would enter the workforce to support an ageing population. There is also a close relationship between the growth of population and the level of physical health and vitality of he people. On the increase in the number of mouths to feed, there is chronic malnutrition and other related diseases. These .further lead to physical lethargy, incompetence, apathy and lack of enterprise. All these affect the quality of he population and the social structure and social institutions.  SO IOLOGY 1. Fill- in the blanks wi th appropriate word from th e bracke t: a. Traditional s ocie ty w as characterised by labour. (m e chanised, manual) INTEXT QUESTIONS 17.2 (v) production is fo r exchange in the mar ket and fo r profits and not J u5t for dom esti c consumption ; vi) development of world market instead oflocal market ; and vii) Improved means of transport and c o mmunication and a currency based econ omy . Modern t e chnol ogy and man m ade conditi o ns hav e c han g e d not onl y the syst e m _ and quantity of production but also productionrelationships, Modem in<lustriaJ r e la tionships have g i ven b irth to companies , corporations , and share i:Dadcet, multi na tional companies , banks and the union of industrial workers. : a :··. · · · (i) importance of capital instead oflabour as against he norm in simple societies; (n) rise of factories as units of production inste a d of family ; iii) use of steam , electricity and atomic power instead of energy produced by ·   human and animal power; (iv) . use of machin e s in place o fhuman and anim al la bour; society was characterised by manual labour and f amily was the uni t of production. Production was based on human and animal po w er and was for domestic consumption . There was neither a g o verning profit motive in economic transactions nor whatever wa s produced was brought into market. - After the middle of the n i net e enth century, the industrial r ev olution and industrial isation took the form of a definite system. From the viewpoint of technology , the production organisation developed some specific feamres . In his system , ins tead ofbeing influenced and controlled by the environmen t, man tried to control it. Economy started to be based on differentiation, complex division of labour , huge production and a mechanised system of production. Large companies and corporations came into being, some of which with the passage of ime have acquired a multinational character. Industrial socie ti e s are v ery co mp lex and distinctly different from th e earlier simp l e societies . In such societies , there is : ã ' - .i.   f, - , · a du r > cil .   11~1. d ( ... 1 : 1  ,   ' r Notes MODULE-III Social Change Socializ.ation and Social Conirol

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Jul 23, 2017

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Jul 23, 2017
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