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    ITTC – Recommended Procedures 7.5-02 -01-03 Page 1  of 45 Fresh Water and Seawater Properties Effective Date 2011 Revision 02 Updated / Edited by Approved 26 th  ITTC Specialist Committee on Uncertainty Analysis 26 th  ITTC Date 04/2011 Date 09/2011 FRESH WATER AND SEAWATER PROPERTIES ........................................ 2   1.   INTRODUCTION ................................. 2   2.   FRESH WATER PROPERTIES ......... 2   2.1   Uncertainty estimates for fresh water properties ............................................ 6   2.1.1   Example uncertainty calculation of fresh water properties ................... 6   3.   SALTWATER PROPERTIES ............. 7   3.1   Properties at standard salinity and varying temperature. ......................... 7   3.2   Properties at 15 °C and varying salinity ................................................. 7   3.3   Uncertainty estimates for saltwater properties ......................................... 12   3.3.1   Example uncertainty calculation of saltwater properties .................... 12   4.   SUMMARY .......................................... 13   5.   REFERENCES .................................... 14   6.   LIST OF SYMBOLS ........................... 15   APPENDIX A: FRESH WATER PROPERTIES 0.1 TO 50 °C IN 0.1 °C INCREMENTS .................................... 16   APPENDIX B: STANDARD SALTWATER PROPERTIES 0.1 TO 50 °C IN 0.1 °C INCREMENTS .................................... 31      ITTC – Recommended Procedures 7.5-02 -01-03 Page 2  of 45 Fresh Water and Seawater Properties Effective Date 2011 Revision 02 Fresh Water and Seawater Properties 1.   INTRODUCTION The international standard for the properties of fresh water and seawater are specified by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS). The properties available include density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, index of refraction, vapour pres-sure, speed of sound, and surface tension. Those of liquid water are described in IAPWS (2008a). For this procedure, only the following  properties are provided: density, absolute vis-cosity, kinematic viscosity, and vapour pres-sure. In general, the water properties are a func-tion of temperature ( t  ), pressure (  p ), and abso-lute salinity ( S  A ). For fresh water, S  A  = 0.0. In this procedure, data are provided at standard  pressure of 0.101325 MPa and as a function of temperature. The temperature scale is the In-ternational Temperature Scale 1990 (ITS-90). At non-standard conditions, water properties should be computed from computer codes de-scribed in the following paragraphs. The values for fresh water were computed via a computer code from NIST (National Insti-tute of Standards and Technology), the Na-tional Metrology Institute (NMI) for the United States. Harvey, et al. (2008) is the manual for the computer code. The sensitivity coefficients are also provided so that the uncertainty in the  property may be computed from the uncer-tainty in temperature per the 25 th  ITTC proce-dure on uncertainty analysis. The uncertainties in the IAPWS equations are also provided. IAWPS (2008b) is the new international standard for seawater properties. The new stan-dard for seawater has been developed by a group at the United Nations and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) and several other inter-national organizations. The latest standard for seawater properties is the International Ther-modynamic Equation Of Seawater: 2010 (TEOS-10). IOC, et al. (2010) is the manual for the computer code. The code currently calcu-lates thermodynamic properties such as density and vapour pressure. IAWPS (2010) has certi-fied a research need for transport properties such as viscosity. In the meantime for this pro-cedure, viscosity and vapour pressure recom-mended by Sharqawy, et al. (2010) is adopted. Another source of seawater properties is the SIA (Sea-Ice-Air) library described by Feistel, et al. (2010) and Wright, et al. (2010). 2.   FRESH WATER PROPERTIES Fresh water properties were computed at the standard pressure of 0.101325 MPa. The results for density, absolute viscosity, kinematic vis-cosity, vapour pressure, and their sensitivity coefficients are shown in the following graphi-cally in Figure 1 through Figure 4 as S  A  = 0.0. The properties were produced from the NIST code of Harvey, et al. (2008) from 0.1 to 50 °C in 0.1 °C steps, and the sensitivity coefficients were computed by a central finite-differencing method from ISO (2008) given by:    ITTC – Recommended Procedures 7.5-02 -01-03 Page 3  of 45 Fresh Water and Seawater Properties Effective Date 2011 Revision 02 Temperature, t (C) 01020304050    W  a   t  e  r   D  e  n  s   i   t  y ,   ρ   (    k  g   /  m    3    ) 98099010001010102010301040 S  A  = 0.0S  A  = 35.16504 g/kg  a.   Density Temperature, t (C) 01020304050    d   ρ   /    d   t   (   k  g   /  m    3   -   C   ) -0.5-0.4-0.3-0.2-0.10.00.1 S  A  = 0.0S  A  = 35.16504 g/kg   b.   Sensitivity coefficient Figure 1: Fresh water and standard seawater density Temperature, t (C) 01020304050    A   b  s  o   l  u   t  e   V   i  s  c  o  s   i   t  y ,   µ     (   1   0    3     P  a  -  s   ) 0.40.60.81.01.21.41.61.82.0 S  A  = 0.0S  A  = 35.16504 g/kg  a. Absolute viscosity Temperature, t (C) 01020304050    d   µ    /   d   t   (   1   0    5    P  a  -  s   /   C   ) -7-6-5-4-3-2-10 S  A  = 0.0S  A  = 35.16504 g/kg   b. Sensitivity coefficient Figure 2: Fresh water and standard seawater absolute viscosity    ITTC – Recommended Procedures 7.5-02 -01-03 Page 4  of 45 Fresh Water and Seawater Properties Effective Date 2011 Revision 02 Temperature, t (C) 01020304050    K   i  n  e  m  a   t   i  c   V   i  s  c  o  s   i   t  y ,   ν    (   1   0    6    m    2    /  s   ) 0.40.60.81.01.21.41.61.82.0 SA = 0.0S  A  = 35.16504 g/kg  a. Kinematic viscosity Temperature, t (C) 01020304050    d   ν    /   d   t   (   1   0    8   m    2    /  s  -   C   ) -7-6-5-4-3-2-10 S  A  = 0.0S  A  = 35.16504 g/kg   b. Sensitivity coefficient Figure 3: Fresh water and standard seawater kinematic viscosity Temperature, t (C) 01020304050    V  a  p  o  u  r   P  r  e  s  s  u  r  e ,  p   v    (   k   P  a   ) 02468101214 S  A  = 0.0S  A  = 35.16504 g/kg  a. Vapour pressure Temperature, t (C) 01020304050    d  p   v    /   d   t   (   k   P  a   /   C   ) 0.00.10.20.30.40.50.60.7 S  A  = 0.0SA = 35.16504 g/kg   b. Sensitivity coefficient Figure 4: Fresh water and standard seawater vapour pressure
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