9 - 5 - (5) Influence and How Information Spreads (11-02).txt

[MUSIC] So now we're going to get into some very, very interesting material that relates to what we were discussing earlier about lead users and people who are important to reach out to. We're going to examine that issue in more detail by trying to understand how information spreads from one person to the next, either in an offline environment, or an online environment. And what it means for influence and contagion to take place. So let me just give a little bit of a road map of where we're goi
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  [MUSIC]So now we're going to get into somevery, very interesting material thatrelates to whatwe were discussing earlier about leadusers andpeople who are important to reach out to.We're going to examine that issue inmore detail by trying to understand howinformationspreads from one person to the next,eitherin an offline environment, or an onlineenvironment.And what it means for influence andcontagion to take place.So let me just give a little bit of aroad map of where we're going to go withthis material.So firstof all, I'm going to show you a very, verycontroversial study.And I'm going to ask you to click on thelink to play it yourself.It's about a minute 45 seconds.It's a study on the spread of obesitythrough a network of people in Boston.I think you'll find it interesting just interms ofunderstanding what a network really is andwhat the elements are.I'm making the summarize by definitionwhat things take place in networks, doyou need individuals, do you need them tobe connected and so on.And then I'm going to talk aboutneighborhoods.So a neighborhood is just another unit ofanalysis.Instead of the individual, we're going tothink about locations.And then we'll wrap everything togetherwith four examplesof research that have been done on thefollowing topics.The first example is going to be some ofmy own research on Internet retailing.And we're going to look at howa company called spreaditself throughoutthe United States through a process ofword of mouth, contagion, and so on.Secondly, we're going to look at anotherstudy done by some colleagues at UCLAthat tried to examine who's influential inthe social network, and who's not.So think of that as being in Facebook,or one of those other social networkingenvironments.The third study is again going back now  into the off line world.It's going to be looking at a network ofphysicians in Los Angeles.And what influences who prescribes whatdrugs to their patients.So, if I'm friends with Chris, Chris nowis the doctor, he's our all-purposevideographer and he's prescribing acertain kindof drug to his patients, maybe becausehe and I are friends or he's influencingme, I'm going to prescribe the same drug.That's a study done by some colleagueshere atthe Wharton School in conjunction withanother professor at USC.Then the final study is another one of myown.This is also going to look at diffusionfor an Internet retailing company.But this time, the company's calledBonobos.It's a fashion retailer.So let's's the controversial study.And it's actually out of a book by someprofessors at Harvard.And I'd like you just to click on the linkand go through it.But I'm just showing a visual here on thescreen.Basically, what the study proports to showisthat obesity spreads almost like a, avirus.Like a flu, or something else, that's whyit's controversial, from people who are ina network.And what that means is if I'm a friend ofsomebody.Who's perhaps struggling a little bit withobesitythen I'm more likely to become obese thansomebody who's not in that social network.That's why it's a little bit controversialbecause it's hard forus to get our heads around the idea ofsomething likeobesity, which is a physical thing, reallyspreading more like avirus which is a cold and we can imaginethat being transmitted.So just play the video because I thinkit'sa good way to understand some of the basicconcepts.Again it's about a minute and 45 seconds.Now that you actually watched that, let mejust sort of reiteratewhat the elements of networks are.  And share what I think are some of themost interesting research findings here.So one of our colleagues at NYU, SinanAral, whodoes a lot of work in the area ofnetworks,he says, really what a network is, is,involves pathwaysthrough which information and resourcesand support flow between people.So you've got to have a flow of something.You got to have a connection.And you must have people.Or, we could also extend this to, toneighborhoods.Now networks caneither be physical.So it could be a social network of peoplewho aregoing to the same church or the same clubin Philadelphia.Or it could be virtual, like Facebook,LinkedIn, Twitter, and so on.Now what's really interesting here andwhat's written at the bottomof the slide is that networks usuallyexhibit something called homophily.Now, that's a buzzword.I don't like to be giving you guys toomany buzzwords.But that's a good one to hang on to.If you mention it at the next party you'reat, you'll be very popular.Trust me.So homophily means, birds of a featherflock together.So people who are using friends, peoplewho are your close associates.Probably on average, are more like you,than they are just like random people.So people have similar culturalbackgrounds, similartastes, similar income levels, tend tokind offlock together, whether it's in a virtualneighborhood, or whether it's in aphysical neighborhood.And we'll say more about this later on,because when we get to our third week,we're going to be looking at various formsofadvertising and communication, includingadvertising over Facebook and we're goingto take advantage of that principle ofhomophily tosend advertisements to people who arefriends of particular brands.So just bear that in mind.We'll be coming back to that later on.So, here's some of the definitions of the  elements that youneed to know when you think about what anetwork is.So a network can be really, really simple.It could be just two people.Chrisand I, we're friends.That could be a simple network.So it could also be hundreds, orthousands, or even millions of people.I guess, by now, at least a billion peopleare connected in one big social network.And Facebook, I think even LinkedIn now isover 225, 250 million people.So in order for a network to exist youhave to have nodes.Nodes can be either people orneighborhoods or some other unit.Normally we're thinking about them aspeople.You then need to have some kind ofconnection between people.And then also some ability toshare information, share resources, andhave exchange.So if you want to see some more backgroundon that, againI've provided another YouTube link for youto be able to do so.Okay, so we also decide, when we go intoa network what benefit are we going to getfrom that?So that's an important thing to keep inmind too.Is that entering a network, whether it'sjoining a local club, going to a localchurch, or participating in asocial network, is a choice and presumablyother people have made the same choice.That's why we may get the birds of afeather flocking together.People who have similar interests.we also decide the networks, whetherthey'rereal networks or social networks, virtualnetworks.How many people we want to be connectedto.And then thirdly, at the bottom of theslide, an important principleis how embedded we are within a network.So imagine, for example, that I'm friendswith Chris anda whole bunch of other people at theUniversity of Pennsylvania.And I'm connected to almost everybody onthe campus.Let's imagine that's true.If that were true, then I would be a veryembedded person.

BSE 141013.pdf

Jul 23, 2017
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