9 - 8 - (8) More Examples of Influence - Part 2 (12-34).txt

[MUSIC] So now, just to recap, we've done two studies that I think show some very, very interesting findings about spreading contagion and influential users. We've looked at demand for spreading through neighborhoods throughout the United States. We've also looked at who's influential for whom in social networking sites. So we've been in the real world, and in the virtual world. Now let's flip back to the real world again. So one area that gets looked at a lot for influence and co
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  [MUSIC]So now, just to recap, we've done twostudies that I thinkshow some very, very interesting findingsabout spreading contagion and influentialusers.We've looked at demand for netgrocer.comspreading through neighborhoods throughoutthe United States.We've also looked at who's influential forwhom in social networking sites.So we've been in the real world, and inthe virtual world.Now let's flip back to the real worldagain.So one area that gets looked at a lot forinfluence andcontagion is among professionals,particularly professionalswho are in the medical community.So what I'm showing you here is a diagramthat'scoming from a paper that was written bytwo ofmy colleagues here at the Wharton Schooland also oneof their colleagues out of the Universityof Southern California.This is a network.You might recognize this kind of diagramfrom the very first thingthat we looked at when westarted this discussion about networks andneighborhoods.That YouTube link that I gave youto show the spreading of obesity, thatcontroversialstudy, throughout Boston and the UnitedStates.This is the same thing here.What this is showing is among 174physicians in the Los Angeles area who isconnected to whom and the size ofthe circles also indicating some degree ofinfluence.So what the firm, the medical firm and theresearchers wantedto understand, is who in this network isinfluential for whom?And by how much?So again to go back to my all purposefriend Chris, who's now going to wear thehat of a doctor.If Chris is a physician in L.A. and I'malso a physician, if he starts prescribinga certain drug to his patients, maybe I'mgoing to follow along and do the samething.Now of course if the drug company knows  whichdoctors are influential that's veryimportant for targeting purposes.So what the colleagues did is they usedthemethodology very, very similar to what Ishowed you earlier.Remember we had the four zip codes, Z1,Z2, Z3,Z4.In this case it's the same idea butinstead of zip codes they're doctors.So they looked at which doctors wereconnected to whom.That's the first piece of information.And then secondly, which doctors hadalready prescribed thedrug, and which doctors had yet to do so.So, remember when we study contagionprocesses we need to know two things.Who's connected to whom and who's donewhat up until the current point in time.Now, they found a couple of reallyinteresting things.Let me giveyou the highlights.They measured influence and contagion intwo very different ways.One way was to just ask people on a selfreportedbasis, hey are you influential on a scaleof 1 to 10.And, it turns out, if people say they'reinfluential it's not too bad, butit's actually a relatively weak predictorcomparedto an indirect measure of measuringinfluence.Which is whether or not I'm citing Chris'swork as a doctor.I'm referring to his scientific studies.So, instead of looking at a measure ofinfluence that is self reported, what theydid is they had another measure ofinfluence that was in some sense moreobjective.Were doctors referring to each other'swork and each other's scientific studies?And they found the second one was moreimportantin predicting the way these drugs weregoing to diffuse.So now let me give you the main takeawaysfromthis study which I think was really,really fascinating doctors.So first of all, the firm found it wasreally helpful for them to try andunderstand thenetwork structure of their customers, in  this case the doctors.And also, in understanding this networkstructure, they wereable to identify that a contagion processwas at work.And the contagion process was driven bythese influential people.Now whats really interesting about this issome of the interest, the influentialpeopleweren't necessarily the people who puttheirhands up, and said hey I'm influential,but they were the people that they figuredout indirectly were influential.That is, the doctors who, to whom othersreferredin terms of scientific studies andcitations and so on.And there are also some quite specialpeople whohad their feet in different camps as itwere.So, in the study they found therewere certain Asian-American doctors whoboth were influentialfor other Asian Americans but also forpeople outside of that ethnic group aswell.So very very interesting.It tells us that understanding the networkstructure is important.Number two, that contagion occurs throughthe network, andnumber three, in all networks, there arecertain special peoplewho are more influential than others, andour jobas marketers is to try and understand whothose are.So now, let's turn to our fourth and finalstudy, sowe've just finished the study ofphysicians in the real world.We've looked at some other things in thevirtual world.And now, we're going to back to thevirtualworld again, but with a real world twist.The company that we looked at, in thiscase, is a company called Bonobos.It's been around since about 2007, sellingmen's clothing online.also selling through traditionalretailers, and I think I mentionedthem a little bit earlier in the piece aswell.So this resulted in a paper that mycolleague and friend Jay YoungLee and I wrote about something  called neighborhood social capital andonline sales.So let's look in and see what that'stalking about.So now I'm just showing you a screenshotof thecompany, Bonobos, so you can see thatthey're selling tomen, the target is males aged roughly 20to 45who are somewhat fashion-forward andlooking for affordable, fashionableclothing.So, what we wanted to do in this case waswe wanted to try and understand whetheror not there was real world interactionthatwas increasing the virtual world sales ofthis company.So whatI mean by that is that my friend Chris andI, so Chris is backin the picture, this time he's just aregular friend who wants a pair of pants.He's not a doctor Chris and I are friends.And if Chris happens to buy some items ofclothingfrom and I see him wearingthem, and hetells me about them, is that going to leadme tothen increase the chance that I buy fromthe same website?That's what we wanted to look at.Whether or not, interaction in the realworld was going to lead toadditional sales in the virtual world, orat the website of the company.That was the first piece.Now the second piece, again here it's on aslide, we wanted tosee whether or not there was an effect ofsomething called social capital.Social capital is a really fascinationconcept, andit's one that was really coined, Ibelieve, bya fellow at the Harvard University'sKennedy School ofGovernment, a gentleman by the name ofRobert Putnam.He wrote a book called Bowling Alone.You know, you think of bowling temp andbowling in America, the metaphor isBowling Alone.That we're people us, maybe somewhat lesssocial than they used to be.Maybe we're spending all of ourtime online, we're disconnected from other


Jul 23, 2017
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